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Sustainability 2018, 10(9), 3248;

GIS-Based Energy Consumption and Spatial Variation of Protected Grape Cultivation in China

College of Information and Electrical Engineering, China Agricultural University, 209# No.17 Qinghuadonglu, Haidian District, Beijing 100083, China
The key laboratory of Viticulture and Enology, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100083, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 July 2018 / Revised: 17 August 2018 / Accepted: 4 September 2018 / Published: 12 September 2018
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This paper compares the difference in energy consumption in different sub-patterns and features of energy consumption structures used in protected grape production systems using statistical data. Then, spatial characteristics between different production modes based on geographic information systems are also analyzed. The results reveal that the types of energy consumption include steel, iron wire, water, chemical fertilizer, pesticides, electric power, organic fertilizer, plastic films, and labor. The total energy consumption for protected grape production was 210,534.3 MJ ha−1 in 2011, 211,504.6 MJ ha−1 in 2012, and 222,571.8 MJ ha−1 in 2013. From the perspective of cultivation modes, early ripening production and late ripening production consumed more energy than rain-shelter production; in terms of facility types, the total energy input of both vinyl tunnels and solar greenhouses were always higher than rain-shelter greenhouses. Indirect and non-renewable energy consumption were higher than that of direct and renewable energy, which accounted for 90% of energy consumption. Spatial analysis showed that the values of Moran’s I were all positive for the three years, which means protected grape input had a positive spatial autocorrelation. Therefore, we should adjust the energy input structure and choose more sustainable production modes to improve the sustainability of the production of protected grapes. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy consumption; protected cultivation; grape; spatial variation; GIS energy consumption; protected cultivation; grape; spatial variation; GIS

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Tian, D.; Zhang, M.; Wei, X.; Wang, J.; Mu, W.; Feng, J. GIS-Based Energy Consumption and Spatial Variation of Protected Grape Cultivation in China. Sustainability 2018, 10, 3248.

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