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Sustainability 2018, 10(9), 3118;

State of the Art of Automated Buses

Tallinn Transport Department, Tallinn City Government, EE-10146 Tallinn, Estonia
Department of Automotive and Mechanical Engineering, Metropolia University of Applied Sciences, FI-00079 Helsinki, Finland
Department of Mechanics and Maritime Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41258 Gothenburg, Sweden
IKEM Institute for Climate Protection, Energy and Mobility, DE10179 Berlin, Germany
FLOU Solutions Ltd, FI-00170 Helsinki, Finland
Front Advokater, SE-41117 Gothenburg, Sweden
Applied Autonomy Ltd, NO-3616 Kongsberg, Norway
Zemgale Planning Region, LV-3001 Jelgavā, Latvia
Ragnar Nurkse Department of Innovation and Governance, Tallinn University of Technology, EE-12616 Tallinn, Estonia
Forum Virium Helsinki, FI-00130 Helsinki, Finland
Finnish Transport Safety Agency (Trafi), FI-00101 Helsinki, Finland
The Municipality of Vejle, DK-7100 Vejle, Denmark
Department of Urban Design and Regional Planning, Gdańsk University of Technology, PL-80233 Gdańsk, Poland
The City of Gdańsk, PL-80-803 Gdańsk, Poland
The Municipality of Kongsberg, NO-3602 Kongsberg, Norway
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 July 2018 / Revised: 8 August 2018 / Accepted: 9 August 2018 / Published: 31 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Transportation)
Full-Text   |   PDF [3243 KB, uploaded 5 September 2018]   |  


Urban transportation in the next few decades will shift worldwide toward electrification and automation, with the final aim of increasing energy efficiency and safety for passengers. Such a big change requires strong collaboration and efforts among public administration, research and stakeholders in developing, testing and promoting these technologies in public transportation. Working in this direction, this work provides a review of the impact of the introduction of driverless electric minibuses, for the first and last mile transportation, in public service. More specifically, this paper covers the state of the art in terms of technological background for automation, energy efficiency via electrification and the current state of the legal framework in Europe with a focus on the Baltic Sea Region. View Full-Text
Keywords: automated buses; electrification; intelligent urban transportation automated buses; electrification; intelligent urban transportation

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Ainsalu, J.; Arffman, V.; Bellone, M.; Ellner, M.; Haapamäki, T.; Haavisto, N.; Josefson, E.; Ismailogullari, A.; Lee, B.; Madland, O.; Madžulis, R.; Müür, J.; Mäkinen, S.; Nousiainen, V.; Pilli-Sihvola, E.; Rutanen, E.; Sahala, S.; Schønfeldt, B.; Smolnicki, P.M.; Soe, R.-M.; Sääski, J.; Szymańska, M.; Vaskinn, I.; Åman, M. State of the Art of Automated Buses. Sustainability 2018, 10, 3118.

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