Next Article in Journal
Does Institutional Context Affect CSR Disclosure? A Study on Eurostoxx 50
Next Article in Special Issue
Estimating the Blue Water Footprint of In-Field Crop Losses: A Case Study of U.S. Potato Cultivation
Previous Article in Journal
Product Design Evaluation Using Life Cycle Assessment and Design for Assembly: A Case Study of a Water Leakage Alarm
Previous Article in Special Issue
Water Footprint in Supply Chain Management: An Introduction
Article Menu
Issue 8 (August) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sustainability 2018, 10(8), 2822; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10082822

Blue and Green Water Footprint Assessment for China—A Multi-Region Input–Output Approach

1
Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resource Development on Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education, College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China
2
Institutes of Science and Development, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China
3
School of Public Policy and Management, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
4
water@leeds, School of Civil Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
5
School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen 518055, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 June 2018 / Revised: 27 July 2018 / Accepted: 1 August 2018 / Published: 9 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Footprint in Supply Chain Management)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1233 KB, uploaded 9 August 2018]   |  

Abstract

Research on blue and green water footprints (WF) for China has typically been carried out based on bottom-up and top-down approach using a single-region input–output table. However, this research typically lacks detail on the sectoral interrelationships which exist between China and its trading partners in other countries/regions of the world. Here, a multi-region input–output approach using the WIOD database was applied to quantify the blue and green WF for China in 2009. The quantification was conducted from both production (WFP) and consumption (WFC) perspectives. The results show that the total WFP for China in 2009 was 1152.2 km3, second only to India. At 1070.9 km3, China had the largest WFC volume in the world. The internal WF was 953.5 km3, taking the substantial share for both the WFC and WFP. Overall, China’s trade resulted in a net export of 53.5 km3 virtual water. In contrast, the agricultural sector resulted in a net import of 70.6 km3 virtual water to China, with United States, Brazil, and Canada acting as major suppliers. This study suggests that quantifying the WF of China at global level through a MRIO framework is a necessary step towards achieving sustainability for China’s water management. View Full-Text
Keywords: water footprint; blue and green water; production and consumption perspectives; multi-region input–output analysis water footprint; blue and green water; production and consumption perspectives; multi-region input–output analysis
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Hou, S.; Liu, Y.; Zhao, X.; Tillotson, M.R.; Guo, W.; Li, Y. Blue and Green Water Footprint Assessment for China—A Multi-Region Input–Output Approach. Sustainability 2018, 10, 2822.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Sustainability EISSN 2071-1050 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top