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Sustainability 2018, 10(7), 2117; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10072117

Grid Load Shifting and Performance Assessments of Residential Efficient Energy Technologies, a Case Study in Japan

1
Faculty of Environmental Engineering, The University of Kitakyushu, Kitakyushu 808-0135, Japan
2
Institute of Mechanical Engineering, Tongji University, Siping Road 1239, Shanghai 20092, China
3
Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, The University of Kitakyushu, Kitakyushu 802-8577, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 May 2018 / Revised: 13 June 2018 / Accepted: 17 June 2018 / Published: 21 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Sustainability)
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Abstract

The increasing penetration of renewable energy decreases grid flexibility; thus, decentralized energy management or demand response are emerging as the main approaches to resolve this limitation and to provide flexibility of resources. This research investigates the performance of high energy efficiency appliances and grid-integrated distributed generators based on real monitored data from a social demonstration project. The analysis not only explores the potential cost savings and environmental benefits of high energy efficiency systems in the private sector, but also evaluates public grid load leveling potential from a bottom-up approach. This research provides a better understanding of the behavior of high decentralized efficient energy and includes detailed scenarios of monitored power generation and consumption in a social demonstration project. The scheduled heat pump effectively lifts valley load via transforming electricity to thermal energy, its daily electricity consumption varies from 4 kWh to 10 kWh and is concentrated in the early morning over the period of a year. Aggregated vehicle to home (V2H) brings flexible resources to the grid, by discharging energy to cover the residential night peak load, with fuel cost savings attributed to 90% of profit. The potential for grid load leveling via integrating the power utility and consumer is examined using a bottom-up approach. Five hundred thousand contributions from scheduled electrical vehicles (EVs) and fuel cells provide 5.0% of reliable peak power capacity at 20:00 in winter. The outcome illustrates the energy cost saving and carbon emission reduction scenarios of each of the proposed technologies. Relevant subsidies for heat pump water heater systems and cogeneration are essential customers due to the high initial capital investment. Optimal mixes in structure and coordinated control of high efficiency technologies enable customers to participate in grid load leveling in terms of lowest cost, considering their different features and roles. View Full-Text
Keywords: load shifting; high efficient appliances; on-site generators; performance evaluations load shifting; high efficient appliances; on-site generators; performance evaluations
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Li, Y.; Gao, W.; Ruan, Y.; Ushifusa, Y. Grid Load Shifting and Performance Assessments of Residential Efficient Energy Technologies, a Case Study in Japan. Sustainability 2018, 10, 2117.

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