Optimum Size Selection of CHP Retrofitting in Existing UK Hotel Building
- Data collection of all essential building information including architectural plans, characteristics of the building envelope, plants/system data and actual building energy use. Inspection of the building is also done to validate collected information.
- Employing the gathered building information to develop a holistic model of the building with the energy simulation software.
- Computation of the total energy use of the building through plant/system modelling of the energy simulation software; subsequent verification of model results via comparison of the model result against the actual energy use of the hotel building.
- Introduction of the CHP into the model to evaluate the possible maximum CHP size based on the hotel’s base heating load with priority to meet Domestic Hot Water (DHW) demand, which is substantial and consistent throughout the year, hence ensuring that all the heat produced by the CHP is utilised.
- Reduction of the estimated maximum size by 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60% and 70%; subsequently, critical analysis of the CHP performance over these range is employed as a basis of selection of the optimum CHP size.
1.1. Literature Review
2.1. Building Description
2.2. Building Modelling Process
3. Results and Discussion of Results
3.1. Base Model (without CHP)
3.2. Model with Maximum Capacity of CHP
3.3. Model with CHP (307 kWe)
Conflicts of Interest
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|Area-Weighted Average U-Values (W/m2 K)||Element||Building Envelope||Building Services Compliance Standard for Non-Domestic Buildings|
|Average U-Values (W/m2 K)||Wall||0.56||0.35|
|High usage entrance door||2.53||3.5|
|Air Permeability||5 m3/(h·m2) at 50 Pa|
|Average Conductance||35,995 W/K|
|Construction Data Base||National Calculation Method (NCM) Construction v5.2.tcd|
|Occupancy Levels; People Density; Lux Level||Restaurant||0.2 occupant/m2, 150 lux|
|Changing room||0.119 occupant/m2, 100 lux|
|Circulation area||0.115 occupant/m2, 100 lux|
|Bedroom||0.094 occupant/m2, 100 lux|
|Gym||0.140 occupant/m2 150 lux|
|Food prep/kitchen||0.108 occupant/m2, 500 lux|
|Hall||0.183 occupant/m2, 300 lux|
|Office||0.106 occupant/m2, 400 lux|
|Plant room||0.11 occupant/m2, 200 lux|
|Reception||0.105 occupant/m2, 200 lux|
|Store||0.11 occupant/m2, 50 lux|
|Lavatory||0.118 occupant/m2, 200 lux|
|Fuel Source||Natural gas||CO2 factor–0.184 Kg/kWh|
|Fuel Source||Grid electricity||CO2 factor–0.3516 Kg/kWh|
|CHP Model Size (kWe)||Surplus Generated Electricity (%)||Energy Consumption (%)||Energy Utility Cost (%)||CO2 Emissions (%)|
|750 (Maximum sized CHP)||+53||+20||−54||−39|
|307 (Selected CHP size)||+9||−5||−42||−27|
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Rotimi, A.; Bahadori-Jahromi, A.; Mylona, A.; Godfrey, P.; Cook, D. Optimum Size Selection of CHP Retrofitting in Existing UK Hotel Building. Sustainability 2018, 10, 2044. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10062044
Rotimi A, Bahadori-Jahromi A, Mylona A, Godfrey P, Cook D. Optimum Size Selection of CHP Retrofitting in Existing UK Hotel Building. Sustainability. 2018; 10(6):2044. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10062044Chicago/Turabian Style
Rotimi, Abdulazeez, Ali Bahadori-Jahromi, Anastasia Mylona, Paulina Godfrey, and Darren Cook. 2018. "Optimum Size Selection of CHP Retrofitting in Existing UK Hotel Building" Sustainability 10, no. 6: 2044. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10062044