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Open AccessArticle

Historical and Empirical Basis for Communal Title in Minerals at the National Level: Does Ownership Matter for Human Development?

Center for Social Responsibility in Mining, Sustainable Minerals Institute, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, QLD 4067, Australia
Sustainability 2018, 10(6), 1958; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10061958
Received: 30 April 2018 / Revised: 4 June 2018 / Accepted: 5 June 2018 / Published: 11 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in the Mining, Minerals and Energy Industries)
This paper explores the impact of mineral ownership on the resource curse as measured by the Human Development Index. We start from the basic assumption that the Earth and its minerals are common pool resources, and the sharing of benefits would improve development outcomes. Communal title to minerals exists at the international level for the deep seabed, outer space objects, and, potentially Antarctica, and at the sub-national level through communal title to land, such as traditional landowners and aboriginal tribes. A comprehensive summary of national mining title laws for 199 countries was completed in order to determine if communal ownership is recognized at the national level. The finding is that this type of ownership is non-existent at the national level. The methods include historiography, extensive compilation of national constitutions and mining laws, and linear regression analysis. Ownership titles were combined into centralized and decentralized categories, and simple regression conducted to determine correlation with the human development index (HDI) for 199 countries. Initial findings are that decentralized mineral ownership titles are statistically correlated with higher HDI outcomes. View Full-Text
Keywords: communal title; commonwealth; mineral title; national mineral title; mineral rights; national mining laws; communal property titles; human development index; HDI; common heritage of mankind; communal ownership; public trust doctrine; sovereign wealth fund; communal property rights communal title; commonwealth; mineral title; national mineral title; mineral rights; national mining laws; communal property titles; human development index; HDI; common heritage of mankind; communal ownership; public trust doctrine; sovereign wealth fund; communal property rights
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MDPI and ACS Style

Flomenhoft, G. Historical and Empirical Basis for Communal Title in Minerals at the National Level: Does Ownership Matter for Human Development? Sustainability 2018, 10, 1958. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10061958

AMA Style

Flomenhoft G. Historical and Empirical Basis for Communal Title in Minerals at the National Level: Does Ownership Matter for Human Development? Sustainability. 2018; 10(6):1958. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10061958

Chicago/Turabian Style

Flomenhoft, Gary. 2018. "Historical and Empirical Basis for Communal Title in Minerals at the National Level: Does Ownership Matter for Human Development?" Sustainability 10, no. 6: 1958. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10061958

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