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Sustainability 2018, 10(5), 1621; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10051621

Evaluation of Ground-Source Variable Refrigerant Flow System for U.S. Office Buildings

1
Commercial Air Conditioning, LG Electronics USA, Alpharetta, GA 30022, USA
2
Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering Department, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 April 2018 / Revised: 15 May 2018 / Accepted: 16 May 2018 / Published: 18 May 2018
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Abstract

This paper evaluates the energy performance of ground-source variable refrigerant flow (VRF) systems to condition office buildings located in various U.S. climates. Specifically, the performance of the ground-source VRF systems was determined and evaluated against that achieved by conventional space heating and cooling systems, including packaged terminal air-conditioners (PTACs), water-source heat pumps (WSHPs), ground-source heat pumps (GSHPs), and water-source VRF systems. A comparative analysis shows that ground-source VRF systems require significantly lower source energy uses than other heating and cooling systems in all U.S. climates, ranging from 21% to 50% for PTACs, from 36% to 52% for WSHPs, from 22% to 49% for GSHPs, and from 4% to 19% for water-source VRFs. These results indicate that ground-source VRFs can be suitable heating and cooling systems for all U.S. climates when designing high-energy-performance commercial buildings. View Full-Text
Keywords: cost analysis; office buildings; variable refrigerant flow (VRF) systems; ground-source heat pumps (GSHPs); ground-source VRF systems; water-source heat pumps cost analysis; office buildings; variable refrigerant flow (VRF) systems; ground-source heat pumps (GSHPs); ground-source VRF systems; water-source heat pumps
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Kwag, B.C.; Krarti, M. Evaluation of Ground-Source Variable Refrigerant Flow System for U.S. Office Buildings. Sustainability 2018, 10, 1621.

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