Spatial Evolution of Producer Service Sectors and Its Influencing Factors in Cities: A Case Study of Hangzhou, China
Department of Urban Planning, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310058, China
School of Planning, Design, and Construction & Center of Global Change and Earth Observation, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
School of Public Administration, Zhejiang University of Finance and Economics, Hangzhou 310018, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2018, 10(4), 975; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10040975
Received: 28 January 2018 / Revised: 19 March 2018 / Accepted: 22 March 2018 / Published: 27 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Smart Cities and Smart Villages Research)
Producer service industries are an important feature in the current development of a metropolis. Researchers from different countries are increasingly concerned about location changes and the motives of producer service sectors in cities. Given the rapid development of producer service sectors in developing countries, this study examines changes in the distribution of producer service sectors over the past decade and factors influencing them in a case study using the city of Hangzhou in China. Results show that Hangzhou’s producer service sector is still mainly concentrated in the central business district (CBD). However, a distinct trend of diffusion to suburban areas was observed, which formed several secondary clusters on the periphery of the city. Locations of the CBD, sub-centers, and professional clusters of producer service sectors established by the government are the most important factors that affect the spatial distribution of producer service sectors. The main influencing factors for the spatial evolution of producer service sectors are: (1) the high development cost and residential suburbanization of the central areas of the city promote the development of producer service sectors toward the periphery; (2) city planning has guided the clustering of producer service sectors on the city’s CBD and secondary city centers; (3) city renewal has provided personalized and diversified development space for producer service sectors; (4) incentive policies introduced by the government, such as rentals, and taxes have enhanced the orderly aggregation of producer service sectors.