Next Article in Journal
Influence of Adaptive Comfort Models on Energy Improvement for Housing in Cold Areas
Previous Article in Journal
Restoration Plan for Degraded Forest in The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea Considering Suitable Tree Species and Spatial Distribution
Open AccessArticle

Mitigation Potential of Sanitation Infrastructure on Groundwater Contamination by Nitrate in Maputo

1
Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Department of Water Management, Delft University of Technology, 2628 CN, Delft, The Netherlands
2
Faculty of Engineering, Eduardo Mondlane University, 1100 Maputo, Mozambique
3
Leiden University, Institute of Environmental Science (CML), 2300 RA, Leiden, The Netherlands
4
Eawag, Department Systems Analysis, Integrated Assessment and Modelling, CH-8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 858; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030858
Received: 14 February 2018 / Revised: 15 March 2018 / Accepted: 16 March 2018 / Published: 18 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Engineering and Science)
In Maputo, the capital of Mozambique, nitrate concentrations above 250 mg L−1 in groundwater have been reported. This happens due to the widespread use of latrines and septic tanks that allow for constant infiltration of its content into the soil and eventually to groundwater sources, a situation that is widespread in the Global South and represents a serious threat for human health and for the environment. This is a reflection of limited access to safe and adequate sanitation services, which the local authorities have set to improve in the forthcoming decades with a recently commissioned city-wide sanitation masterplan serving as a basis for the works. In this article, we aimed at understanding whether the infrastructure projected in the masterplan would lead to a reduction of nitrogen reaching groundwater. Currently, according to our calculations, almost 500 tonnes of nitrogen reach the city’s groundwater sources each year, with the masterplan potentially resulting in a 14% reduction, a small reduction due to its reliance on maintaining and expanding fecal sludge services, without considering investments to improve domestic systems (e.g., construction of contained systems). An alternative, not presented in the Masterplan and put forward by the authors, could be the construction of simplified sewers in two of the city’s most densely populated neighborhoods, with a potential 29% reduction in nitrogen reaching groundwater. View Full-Text
Keywords: on-site sanitation; fecal sludge; groundwater; contamination; nitrate; material flow analysis; sewer infrastructure; decision support on-site sanitation; fecal sludge; groundwater; contamination; nitrate; material flow analysis; sewer infrastructure; decision support
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Marques Arsénio, A.; Câmara Salim, I.; Hu, M.; Pedro Matsinhe, N.; Scheidegger, R.; Rietveld, L. Mitigation Potential of Sanitation Infrastructure on Groundwater Contamination by Nitrate in Maputo. Sustainability 2018, 10, 858.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop