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Open AccessArticle

A Countermeasure for Preventing Flexibility Deficit under High-Level Penetration of Renewable Energies: A Robust Optimization Approach

1
School of Electrical Engineering, Anam Campus, Korea University, 145 Anam-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 02841, Korea
2
Department of Electrical and Information Engineering, Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul 01811, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2018, 10(11), 4159; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10114159
Received: 23 October 2018 / Revised: 6 November 2018 / Accepted: 7 November 2018 / Published: 12 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Energy Systems: From Primary to End-Use)
An energy paradigm shift has rapidly occurred around the globe. One change has been an increase in the penetration of sustainable energy. However, this can affect the reliability of power systems by increasing variability and uncertainty from the use of renewable resources. To improve the reliability of an energy supply, a power system must have a sufficient amount of flexible resources to prevent a flexibility deficit. This paper proposes a countermeasure for protecting nonnegative flexibility under high-level penetration of renewable energy with robust optimization. The proposed method is divided into three steps: (i) constructing an uncertainty set with the capacity factor of renewable energy, (ii) searching for the initial point of a flexibility deficit, and (iii) calculating the capacity of the energy storage system to avoid such a deficit. In this study, robust optimization is applied to consider the uncertainty of renewable energy, and the results are compared between deterministic and robust approaches. The proposed method is demonstrated on a power system in the Republic of Korea. View Full-Text
Keywords: robust optimization; renewable energy; flexibility; deficit; uncertainty; flexible resource; energy storage systems robust optimization; renewable energy; flexibility; deficit; uncertainty; flexible resource; energy storage systems
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jeong, J.; Shin, H.; Song, H.; Lee, B. A Countermeasure for Preventing Flexibility Deficit under High-Level Penetration of Renewable Energies: A Robust Optimization Approach. Sustainability 2018, 10, 4159.

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