Global Ecolabelling Certification Standards and ASEAN Fisheries: Can Fisheries Legislations in ASEAN Countries Support the Fisheries Certification?
- GSSI Essential Components and GSSI Supplementary Components for Governance of a Seafood Certification Scheme
- GSSI Essential Components and GSSI Supplementary Components for Operational Management of a Seafood Certification Scheme
- GSSI Essential Components and GSSI Supplementary Components for Aquaculture Certification Standards
- GSSI Essential Components and GSSI Supplementary Components for Fisheries Certification Standards
2. Status of ASEAN Fishery Legislations
2.1. Management Organization
2.2. Participatory Management
2.3. Small-Scale and/or Data Limited Fisheries
2.4. Management Objectives and the Best Available Scientific Evidence
2.5. Management System Compliance
2.6. Transboundary Stocks
2.7. Continuous Review
2.8. Ecosystem Structure, Processes, and Function and Endangered Species
2.9. Enhanced Fisheries
2.10. Precautionary Approach
2.11. References Points and Stock Assessment
3.1. Potentials and Current Gaps of ASEAN Fisheries to Meet the Requirements of GSSI
3.2. Cost and Benefit for ASEAN Fisheries to Receive Certification Based on GSSI Standard
Conflicts of Interest
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|Number of fishing boats (1000)||625.708||98.69||56.21||28.46||28.72||25.00||6.371||0.036||N/A||0.03||869.225|
|Number of fishers (1000)||2724.69||N/A||170.4||3216.3||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||6111.39|
|Fishery production (1000 tons)||22,154.4||731.8||1998.4||5316||6549||2429||4645||4.35||158.6||8.16||42,998.24|
|Names of Countries||Provisions of ASEAN Fishery Legislations Support the Requirements of GSSI|
|2.1. Management organization:|
|Cambodia||-Establishment of community fisheries (Article 1) |
-The rights, roles, and responsibility of a community fisheries organization to participate in fisheries conservation and management 62 , (Article 13)  and (Article 19) 
-Working plan (Article 28) 
-Follow up and monitor the community fisheries (Article 23) 
-Facilitate the implementation process, assistance and capacity building to the communities (Article 23) 
|Indonesia||-Strengthening community fisheries, Regulation No. 2/PERMEN-KP/2013 |
-Participate in the management of fisheries resources (Article 60) 
-Traditional culture and fishers’ interests (Article 17 and 60) 
-Participate in law enforcement (Article 60) 
|Laos PDR||-Establish fisher communities (Article 48) |
-Roles and responsibilities (Article 48) 
-Right to participate in fisheries management (Article 51) 
-Respect their local tradition and culture (Article 28) 
-The fisheries management organization established at provincial and district levels (Article 43) 
-Participate in research surveys and the policy formulation process (Article 17) 
|Philippines||-Allows the community fishers to establish a fisheries management advisory body at the local level with assistance of local non-governmental organizations and other concerned agencies (Section 69) |
-Comments and suggestions concerning fisheries management at local and national levels (Section 70) 
-Capacity building to community fishers (Section 24) 
|Thailand||-Royal Ordinance on Fisheries permits community fishers and encourages other stakeholders to participate in fisheries management, conservation, and utilization (Sections 8, 12 and 25) |
-Local community fishers receive support and capacity building from the government (Section 25) 
|Vietnam||-Participate in fisheries monitoring, enforcement and conflict resolution |
-The fisheries are authorized to be managed by local authority (Article 15(3)) 
|2.2. Participatory management|
|Cambodia||-Local experiences and local knowledge (Article 20) |
|Indonesia||-Respect local community fishers’ interest and their customary law (Articles 17 and 21) |
|Lao PDR||-The participation of local community fishers in data collection and surveys (Article 17) |
-Encourages the contribution of local community fishers in policy formulation (Section 25) 
|2.3. Small-scale and/or data limited fisheries|
|Cambodia||-Small-scale fishers are not required to obtain fishing license and can fish in open access areas year-round (Articles 31, 32, 44, 45, 65, and 95) |
|Indonesia||-Operate without a fishing license, no taxes, and easily obtained loan (Articles 26, 48, and 62) ;|
-Their capacity, training and education (Article 60) 
|Philippines||-Fishing zonation (Section 18) ;|
-Incentives with loans and receive capacity building (Section 34) .
|2.4. Management objectives and the best available scientific evidence|
|Brunei Darussalam||-Legal ground for conducting fishery-related scientific research (Article 64) |
|Cambodia||-Legal support to conduct scientific fisheries research (Article 9) |
|Indonesia||-Fisheries research and development, information and statistics (Articles 46, 47, and 52) |
|Lao PDR||-Fisheries research, fishery information and statistics (Article 18) |
|Malaysia||-Fishery scientific information (Articles 6, 19, and 37) |
|-Collect fishery data and information and research (Sections 14, 65, and 82) |
|Thailand||-Collect fishery data, statistics, best scientific information (Sections 9 and 12) |
|Vietnam||-Fisheries research and fishery resource assessment for policy formulation (Articles 5 and 14) |
|Singapore||-A condition for scientific research on fisheries (Article 25) |
|Myanmar||-Required to obtain permission before conducting fisheries research (Article 17) |
|2.5. Management system compliance|
|Brunei Darussalam||-The 2009 Fisheries Order and the International Fishery Agreement (No. 17, 18 and 19) |
|Cambodia||-Compliance to national policy and the provision of the 2006 Fisheries Law (Article 6) |
-Agreement, conventions, and international treaties (Articles 14 and 22) 
|Indonesia||-Cooperation framework with neighboring countries and regional and international organizations (Article 10) |
|Lao PDR||-2009 Fisheries Law, agreement and international convention (Articles 5, 8, 9, and 43) |
|Malaysia||-Provision of the 1985 Fisheries Act and the international agreement (No. 17) |
|The Philippines||-The provision of the existing laws, rules, and regulation, and in compliance with international agreement, treaties, and conventions (Sections 26, 28, 65, 67, 74, 77, 86, and 119) |
|Thailand||-International laws, obligations, and standards (Sections 4, 8, 21, 47, and 104) |
|Vietnam||-The provision and the agreement of the Vietnamese Fisheries Law 2003, International Fishery Agreement (Articles 1 and 49) |
|2.6. Transboundary stocks|
|ASEAN||-Joint ASEAN-SEAFDEC Declaration to strengthen transboundary fishery management |
|Four Riparian Mekong countries||-The agreement for the cooperation of management in 1995 |
|2.7. Continuous review|
|Cambodia||-Law enforcement (Article 7) |
-Monitor and evaluate community fisheries annually (Articles 61 and 62) 
|Indonesia||-Monitor the Fisheries Law enforcement (Articles 45, 65, and 66) |
|Lao PDR||-The responsibility of fisheries management and enforcement (Article 50) |
|Malaysia||-Fisheries continuously reviewed (Section 6) |
|Philippine||-Consult and review to inspect the consistency (Section 16) |
|Singapore||-Continuously review to check consistency (Section 5) |
|Thailand||-Pursuant to fisheries management approach and current fishing capacity (Section 24) |
|2.8. Ecosystem structure, processes, function and endangered species|
|Brunei Darussalam||-Preservation of endangered species (No. 31(a), 38, and 64(1) |
|Cambodia||-Species preservation (Articles 1, 19, 20, 22–28, 48–52, 57, 76) |
|Lao PDR||-The prevention of killing and capturing of endangered, threatened, or extinct species (Article 50) |
|Malaysia||-Fisheries regulation 1999 and (No. 26 and 61) |
|Myanmar||-No. 34 of Freshwater Fisheries Law 1991 |
|Thailand||-Section 66 of Royal Ordinance on Fisheries |
|Philippines||-Fisheries ecosystem and function (Section 81) |
-Trade of a vulnerable and endangered species (Section 11)  and (Section 102) 
-The ecosystem and function (Sections 97 and 99)  and (Sections 92 and 94) 
|2.9. Enhanced fisheries|
|Cambodia||-The enhancement of wild fish stock through fish releasing (Article 17) |
|Indonesia||-Fish stocking, (Article 7) |
-Control the introduction of fish stock (Article 15) ;
-Development and use of sperm plasma of fish resources in the context of ecosystem conservation and breeding (Article 14) 
|The Philippines||-Enhance fish stock (Section 65) |
|Thailand||-Approaches for enhancing fisheries management (Section 24) |
|Vietnam||-Fish fry released in a natural habitat for enhancing fish stock (Article 8) |
|2.10. Precautionary approach|
|Thailand||-Fisheries management measures and precautionary approach to achieve the maximum sustainable yield (Sections 4(5), 12, and 55) |
|2.11. References points and stock assessment|
|Indonesia||-Legal ground to define the status of fisheries resources and TAC in the fisheries management (Article 7) |
|the Philippines||-Policy support to determine MSY, TAC and stock assessment (Rule 7.1) |
-Define TAC or catch ceiling limit (Section 8) 
|Thailand||-Points of reference for sustainable fisheries management (Section 30) |
|Vietnam||-The application of TAC (Articles 11(1) and 14) |
|Malaysia||-Define the fishing effort (Section 13(6)) |
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Lieng, S.; Yagi, N.; Ishihara, H. Global Ecolabelling Certification Standards and ASEAN Fisheries: Can Fisheries Legislations in ASEAN Countries Support the Fisheries Certification? Sustainability 2018, 10, 3843. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10113843
Lieng S, Yagi N, Ishihara H. Global Ecolabelling Certification Standards and ASEAN Fisheries: Can Fisheries Legislations in ASEAN Countries Support the Fisheries Certification? Sustainability. 2018; 10(11):3843. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10113843Chicago/Turabian Style
Lieng, Sopha, Nobuyuki Yagi, and Hiroe Ishihara. 2018. "Global Ecolabelling Certification Standards and ASEAN Fisheries: Can Fisheries Legislations in ASEAN Countries Support the Fisheries Certification?" Sustainability 10, no. 11: 3843. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10113843