In modern sustainable agriculture, green manuring is increasingly emphasized for a reasonable land use management. However, the expansion of green manure is affected by a range of factors, such as soil geophysical properties and human intervention. This paper proposes an approach of spatial modelling to understand the mechanisms that influence green manure expansion and map the future distribution of green manure intercropped in the orchards in the Pinggu District, Beijing, China. We firstly classified the orchards into five grades according to a land productivity evaluation, and then considered two strategies for implementing green manure. Two scenarios were designed to represent the strategies: prioritizing low-productivity orchards to promote green manure intercropping (scenario 1) and prioritizing high-productivity orchards to promote green manure intercropping (scenario 2). The spatial expansion of green manure for 2020 was simulated at a resolution of a 100 × 100 m grid in the CLUE-S (the Conversion of Land Use and its Effects at the Small Region Extent) model. The two strategies led to quite different spatial patterns of green manure, although they were applied to the same areas. As a result, the spatial pattern of green manuring of scenario 1 was more concentrated than that of scenario 2. To summarize, the modelled outcomes identified the driving factors that affect green manure expansion at a grid scale, whereas the implementing strategies directly determined the spatial arrangements of green manuring at a regional scale. Therefore, we argue that the assessment of the driving factors and the prediction of the future distribution of green manuring are crucial for informing an extensive use of green manure.
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