Next Article in Journal
Plant-Based Lunch at Work: Effects on Nutrient Intake, Environmental Impact and Tastiness—A Case Study
Next Article in Special Issue
Factors Influencing Farmers’ Adoption of Soil and Water Control Technology (SWCT) in Keita Valley, a Semi-Arid Area of Niger
Previous Article in Journal
Organizational Sustainability Practices: A Study of the Firms Listed by the Corporate Sustainability Index
Previous Article in Special Issue
Spatial Patterns and the Regional Differences of Rural Settlements in Jilin Province, China
Article Menu
Issue 1 (January) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sustainability 2018, 10(1), 225;

Modelling the Spatial Expansion of Green Manure Considering Land Productivity and Implementing Strategies

Department of Soil and Water Sciences, College of Resources and Environment Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
Key Laboratory of Agricultural Land Quality, Ministry of Land and Resources, Beijing 100193, China
Key Laboratory of Arable Land Conservation (North China), Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100193, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 December 2017 / Revised: 5 January 2018 / Accepted: 11 January 2018 / Published: 17 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Land Uses and Rural Governance)
Full-Text   |   PDF [2958 KB, uploaded 17 January 2018]   |  


In modern sustainable agriculture, green manuring is increasingly emphasized for a reasonable land use management. However, the expansion of green manure is affected by a range of factors, such as soil geophysical properties and human intervention. This paper proposes an approach of spatial modelling to understand the mechanisms that influence green manure expansion and map the future distribution of green manure intercropped in the orchards in the Pinggu District, Beijing, China. We firstly classified the orchards into five grades according to a land productivity evaluation, and then considered two strategies for implementing green manure. Two scenarios were designed to represent the strategies: prioritizing low-productivity orchards to promote green manure intercropping (scenario 1) and prioritizing high-productivity orchards to promote green manure intercropping (scenario 2). The spatial expansion of green manure for 2020 was simulated at a resolution of a 100 × 100 m grid in the CLUE-S (the Conversion of Land Use and its Effects at the Small Region Extent) model. The two strategies led to quite different spatial patterns of green manure, although they were applied to the same areas. As a result, the spatial pattern of green manuring of scenario 1 was more concentrated than that of scenario 2. To summarize, the modelled outcomes identified the driving factors that affect green manure expansion at a grid scale, whereas the implementing strategies directly determined the spatial arrangements of green manuring at a regional scale. Therefore, we argue that the assessment of the driving factors and the prediction of the future distribution of green manuring are crucial for informing an extensive use of green manure. View Full-Text
Keywords: orchard green manure; spatial expansion; land productivity evaluation; implementing strategies; CLUE-S model orchard green manure; spatial expansion; land productivity evaluation; implementing strategies; CLUE-S model

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, L.; Cao, M.; Xing, A.; Sun, Z.; Huang, Y. Modelling the Spatial Expansion of Green Manure Considering Land Productivity and Implementing Strategies. Sustainability 2018, 10, 225.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sustainability EISSN 2071-1050 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top