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Review

Radiation-Induced Lung Injury—Current Perspectives and Management

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Division of Pulmonary Diseases and Critical Care, Yale-New Haven Health Bridgeport Hospital, 267 Grant Street, Bridgeport, CT 06610, USA
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Department of Internal Medicine, Yale-New Haven Health Bridgeport Hospital, 267 Grant Street, Bridgeport, CT 06610, USA
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Department of Radiology, Yale-New Haven Health Bridgeport Hospital, 267 Grant Street, Bridgeport, CT 06610, USA
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Department of Internal Medicine, University at Buffalo, 462 Grider Street, Buffalo, NY 14215, USA
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Department of Pulmonary Critical Care Medicine, St. Louis University, 3635 Vista Ave, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Clin. Pract. 2021, 11(3), 410-429; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract11030056
Received: 3 April 2021 / Revised: 11 June 2021 / Accepted: 17 June 2021 / Published: 1 July 2021
Radiotherapy plays an important role in the treatment of localized primary malignancies involving the chest wall or intrathoracic malignancies. Secondary effects of radiotherapy on the lung result in radiation-induced lung disease. The phases of lung injury from radiation range from acute pneumonitis to chronic pulmonary fibrosis. Radiation pneumonitis is a clinical diagnosis based on the history of radiation, imaging findings, and the presence of classic symptoms after exclusion of infection, pulmonary embolism, heart failure, drug-induced pneumonitis, and progression of the primary tumor. Computed tomography (CT) is the preferred imaging modality as it provides a better picture of parenchymal changes. Lung biopsy is rarely required for the diagnosis. Treatment is necessary only for symptomatic patients. Mild symptoms can be treated with inhaled steroids while subacute to moderate symptoms with impaired lung function require oral corticosteroids. Patients who do not tolerate or are refractory to steroids can be considered for treatment with immunosuppressive agents such as azathioprine and cyclosporine. Improvements in radiation technique, as well as early diagnosis and appropriate treatment with high-dose steroids, will lead to lower rates of pneumonitis and an overall good prognosis. View Full-Text
Keywords: radiation; pneumonitis; radiation-induced lung injury radiation; pneumonitis; radiation-induced lung injury
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rahi, M.S.; Parekh, J.; Pednekar, P.; Parmar, G.; Abraham, S.; Nasir, S.; Subramaniyam, R.; Jeyashanmugaraja, G.P.; Gunasekaran, K. Radiation-Induced Lung Injury—Current Perspectives and Management. Clin. Pract. 2021, 11, 410-429. https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract11030056

AMA Style

Rahi MS, Parekh J, Pednekar P, Parmar G, Abraham S, Nasir S, Subramaniyam R, Jeyashanmugaraja GP, Gunasekaran K. Radiation-Induced Lung Injury—Current Perspectives and Management. Clinics and Practice. 2021; 11(3):410-429. https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract11030056

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rahi, Mandeep S., Jay Parekh, Prachi Pednekar, Gaurav Parmar, Soniya Abraham, Samar Nasir, Rajamurugan Subramaniyam, Gini P. Jeyashanmugaraja, and Kulothungan Gunasekaran. 2021. "Radiation-Induced Lung Injury—Current Perspectives and Management" Clinics and Practice 11, no. 3: 410-429. https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract11030056

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