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World Electric Vehicle Journal is published by MDPI from Volume 9 issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by The World Electric Vehicle Association (WEVA) and its member the European Association for e-Mobility (AVERE), the Electric Drive Transportation Association (EDTA), and the Electric Vehicle Association of Asia Pacific (EVAAP). They are hosted by MDPI on as a courtesy and upon agreement with AVERE.
Open AccessArticle

Using on-board Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy in Battery Management Systems

LiTHIUM BALANCE A/S, Baldershøj 26C, 2635 Ishøj, Denmark
Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6(3), 793-799;
Published: 27 September 2013
PDF [559 KB, uploaded 18 May 2018]


As the need for better prediction of battery life parameters in secondary batteries evolves, especially for electric vehicles, many researchers have looked for methods beyond simple battery modeling. One of the promising methods is electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. This is typically a technique used to get insight on the kinetic reactions in batteries and various studies have shown excellent correlation between impedance data and the state of health and ageing effects in lithium-ion batteries. In this article the benefits of using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in battery management systems will be studied as it has been shown by multiple researchers that it is possible to develop an embedded electrochemical impedance spectroscopy circuit. The accuracy of currently available models based on impedance data deteriorates over time and to enable a battery management system to keep accurate predictions on state of health and other ageing-related effects there is a need for on-board electrochemical impedance measurements. Aspects such as SoH, balancing, battery ageing, and second life is discussed in relation to electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and battery management systems.
Keywords: battery SoH (State of Health); BMS (Battery Management System); impedance spectroscopy; on-board battery SoH (State of Health); BMS (Battery Management System); impedance spectroscopy; on-board
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Christensen, A.; Adebusuyi, A. Using on-board Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy in Battery Management Systems. World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6, 793-799.

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