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World Electric Vehicle Journal is published by MDPI from Volume 9 issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by The World Electric Vehicle Association (WEVA) and its member the European Association for e-Mobility (AVERE), the Electric Drive Transportation Association (EDTA), and the Electric Vehicle Association of Asia Pacific (EVAAP). They are hosted by MDPI on as a courtesy and upon agreement with AVERE.
Open AccessArticle

Comparative Study of Different Energy Management Strategies for Dual-Source Electric Vehicles

DEE-ISEC, Polytechnic Institute of Coimbra, P-3030-199, Coimbra, Portugal
DEEC – FCTUC, University of Coimbra - Pólo II, P-3030-290 Coimbra, Portugal
INESC-Coimbra, Institute for Systems and Computers Engineering at Coimbra, P-3000-033 Coimbra, Portugal
APVE, Portuguese Electric Vehicle Association, Portuguese Branch of AVERE, P-1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6(3), 523-531;
Published: 27 September 2013
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This paper presents a comparative analysis between a pure battery electric vehicle and a dual-source electric vehicle endowed with a multi-level energy management strategy. The energy management of multi-source electric vehicles is a crucial aspect to obtain an effective contribution of the power sources, namely one with high specific energy and another with high specific power. This issue is particularly relevant for electric vehicles subject to high accelerations, breaking and those performing a large number of start and stop in its driving cycle. A comprehensive energy management system architecture with different management levels is presented and compared with a rule-based strategy (power disaggregation) and a pure battery electric vehicle. Simulations have been performed for two different urban driving cycles (NYCC and ARTEMIS low power urban) in order to validate and compare the effectiveness of the strategies under study. The results obtained show the usefulness of the proposed multi-level energy management strategy based on an integrated rule-based meta-heuristic approach versus an energy management strategy directed by the power disaggregation concept. The proposed approach increases the electric vehicle performance due to a better usage of the sources, which leads to a reduced installed power capacity.
Keywords: Energy Storage; Power Management; Efficiency; Battery; EDLC (Electric Double-Layer Capacitor) Energy Storage; Power Management; Efficiency; Battery; EDLC (Electric Double-Layer Capacitor)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Trovão, J.P.; Santos, V.D.N.; Pereirinha, P.G.; Jorge, H.M.; Antunes, C.H. Comparative Study of Different Energy Management Strategies for Dual-Source Electric Vehicles. World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6, 523-531.

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