The development of improved State-of-Health (SoH) diagnosis methods is a current research topic for battery-powered applications. For instance, Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) are in rapid extension and create a strong demand for an accurate and reliable SoH indicator during operation. Such an indicator is a key parameter required to optimize battery energy management and to track the degradation of the system performances. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is one of the most promising methods for characterizing ageing effects of secondary batteries online because it can be sensitive to different ageing mechanisms. This paper presents a method to measure the electrochemical transfer function of the cell at different frequencies simultaneously with the data treatment of free current and voltage during operation. Impedance parameters were then estimated by a non linear least square algorithm. Based on this approach, an experimental investigation of ageing effects of a lithium ion battery was carried out. After 1400 HEV cycles, the battery showed a 7 % decreased capacity, and 8 % increased resistance at 0.5 Hz. Modelling results show that charge transfer resistance have a similar evolution in function of ageing time than the resistance of battery measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. To our knowledge on the topic, this constitutes a substantial step towards SoH indicator that could be reliable and precise enough under realistic user conditions.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited