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World Electric Vehicle Journal is published by MDPI from Volume 9 issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by The World Electric Vehicle Association (WEVA) and its member the European Association for e-Mobility (AVERE), the Electric Drive Transportation Association (EDTA), and the Electric Vehicle Association of Asia Pacific (EVAAP). They are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with AVERE.
Open AccessArticle

Aging Effect of Temperature Gradients in Li-ion Cells Experimental and Simulative Investigations and the Consequences on Thermal Battery Management

1
BMW Peugeot Citroën Electrification GmbH, Taunusstraße 45, 80807 München, Germany
2
Department of Vehicle Mechatronics, TU Dresden, Georg-Bähr-Straße 1c, 01069 Dresden, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
World Electr. Veh. J. 2012, 5(2), 322-333; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj5020322
Published: 29 June 2012
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Abstract

The occurrence and simulative reconstruction of local aging inhomogeneities in Li-ion cells caused by temperature gradients are described, which typically result from active battery cooling in automotive applications. The interactions of thermal, electrical and degradation behaviour are investigated on a prismatic Li-ion cell of 60Ah capacity comprising a graphite / NCM/LMO-blend system. Therefore a transient 3D thermal FVM model combined with a 3D impedance based FNM-model is implemented in order to consider thermal-electrical inhomogeneities. The model is validated by thermal measurements on operated Li-ion cells that are prepared with 8 internal thermocouples inside the jelly roll of the battery. For degradation investigations a weighted charge throughput cycle life model is discretized analogue to the thermal-electrical model. Temperature, current rate and SoC swing are each considered by an aging stress pre-factor. The aging model is exemplary parameterized by five isothermal cycle-life tests. The simulative results show the inhomogeneous capacity loss and impedance rise inside the battery cells with thermal gradient for two aging scenarios. As a result, also temperature and current density distributions inside the cell changes over lifetime. According to both aging indicators, a Li-ion battery cell with temperature gradient comprises an aging relevant temperature that equates the volumetric averaged jelly roll temperature plus 10% of the maximum temperature difference in the jelly roll.
Keywords: batteries; modelling; thermal management; Li-ion batteries; cycle life batteries; modelling; thermal management; Li-ion batteries; cycle life
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Fleckenstein, M.; Bohlen, O.; Bäker, B. Aging Effect of Temperature Gradients in Li-ion Cells Experimental and Simulative Investigations and the Consequences on Thermal Battery Management. World Electr. Veh. J. 2012, 5, 322-333.

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