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World Electric Vehicle Journal is published by MDPI from Volume 9 issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by The World Electric Vehicle Association (WEVA) and its member the European Association for e-Mobility (AVERE), the Electric Drive Transportation Association (EDTA), and the Electric Vehicle Association of Asia Pacific (EVAAP). They are hosted by MDPI on as a courtesy and upon agreement with AVERE.
Open AccessArticle

A Multi-hybrid Energy System for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, the University of Hong Kong Hong Kong Special Administration Region, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
World Electr. Veh. J. 2010, 4(3), 505-510;
Published: 24 September 2010
PDF [342 KB, uploaded 18 May 2018]


Recently the thermoelectric-photovoltaic (TE-PV) hybrid energy system for hybrid electric vehicles has been proposed. However, the output voltage of this TE-PV hybrid energy system is governed by the voltage of the battery, which is affected by the state of charge of the battery and the charging/discharging current. Furthermore, in order to improve the power density and life cycle of the battery, the ultracapacitor (UC) has been proposed to hybridize with the battery to form a hybrid energy storage system. In this paper, a multi-hybrid energy system is proposed for HEVs, which incorporates the advantages of the TE-PV hybrid subsystem and the ultracapacitor-battery (UC-B) hybrid subsystem. On the one side, the TE-PV hybrid subsystem can provide the higher fuel economy due to the increase of on-board renewable energy, the better energy security due to the use of multiple energy sources, and the higher control flexibility due to the coordination for charging the same pack of batteries. On the other side, the UC-B hybrid subsystem can provide faster transient power, higher power density and longer battery lifetime. Detailed simulations results are given to highlight the effectiveness of the designed multi-hybrid energy system.
Keywords: Hybrid electric vehicles; hybrid energy system; thermoelectric; photovoltaic; multiple input converter Hybrid electric vehicles; hybrid energy system; thermoelectric; photovoltaic; multiple input converter
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Zhang, X.; Chau, K.T.; Chan, C.C. A Multi-hybrid Energy System for Hybrid Electric Vehicles. World Electr. Veh. J. 2010, 4, 505-510.

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