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World Electric Vehicle Journal is published by MDPI from Volume 9 issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by The World Electric Vehicle Association (WEVA) and its member the European Association for e-Mobility (AVERE), the Electric Drive Transportation Association (EDTA), and the Electric Vehicle Association of Asia Pacific (EVAAP). They are hosted by MDPI on as a courtesy and upon agreement with AVERE.
Open AccessArticle

Building a hydrogen infrastructure in Norway

Ludwig-Bölkow-Systemtechnik GmbH, Daimlerstr. 15, DE-85521 Ottobrunn, Germany
SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, Rich. Birkelandsv 2b, N-7465 Trondheim, Norway
Institute for Energy Technology, Norway
Department of Energy and Process Engineering, The Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(1), 104-113;
Published: 27 March 2009
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Hydrogen is expected to become an integral part of the Norwegian energy system in the future, primarily as a fuel for transportation. The NorWays project aims at providing decision support for introduction of hydrogen in the Norwegian energy system by modelling the energy system and hydrogen infrastructure build-up at various spatial levels. GIS-based regional hydrogen demand scenarios and hydrogen refuelling station networks have been generated, considering organic growth of regional hydrogen deployment and increasing density of hydrogen users over time. A regional model was used to optimise supply scenarios for these hydrogen refuelling station networks, including choice of production technology (biomass gasification, NG SMR, electrolysis, by-product hydrogen) and delivery (pipeline, truck, and onsite schemes) as well as integrated hydrogen delivery networks by truck and pipeline. The sensitivity to variations in energy price and GHG emission constraint scenarios on hydrogen production and delivery mix and average hydrogen costs was assessed, and conclusions on the effectiveness of policy measures were drawn.
Keywords: hydrogen; infrastructure; optimization; modeling hydrogen; infrastructure; optimization; modeling
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Stiller, C.; Svensson, A.M.; Rosenberg, E.; Møller-Holst, S.; Bünger, U. Building a hydrogen infrastructure in Norway. World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3, 104-113.

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