# Driving System Design and Power Source Parameter Optimization of Tractor with Dual-Motor Coupling Drive

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Materials and Methods

#### 2.1. Design of Electric Tractor Drive System

#### 2.1.1. Transmission Scheme

#### 2.1.2. Traction performance Calculation of Electric Tractor

- Rated traction

- 2.
- Traction efficiency

- 3.
- Climbing gradient

#### 2.1.3. Motor Parameter Matching

- Satisfying the requirements of plowing resistance and rolling resistance of electric tractors under plowing conditions [16]:

- 2.
- Meeting the requirements of slope resistance and rolling resistance of the electric tractor when climbing:

#### 2.1.4. Transmission Design

#### 2.1.5. Design of Power Battery Pack

- Maximum power demand

- 2.
- Total energy demand

#### 2.1.6. Calculation of Main Parameters

^{2}. According to the above formula, the value range of the rated traction force is 11.55~12.6 kN. Considering that the tractor needs a large power reserve to cope with the load fluctuation, the rated traction force is 12.6 kN.

#### 2.2. Establishment of Mathematical Model and Parameter Optimization Model of Dual-Motor Power System

#### 2.2.1. Establishment of Main Component Models of Power System

- Motor model

- 2.
- Battery model

#### 2.2.2. Establishment of Optimization Model

- Design variable

- 2.
- Objective function

- 3.
- Constraints

#### 2.3. Implementation of Genetic Algorithm

## 3. Results

#### 3.1. Parameter Optimization Results

#### 3.2. Analysis of Optimization Results of Power Distribution Coefficient of Dual Motors

#### 3.2.1. Comparison and Analysis of Driving Characteristics between the Optimized Electric Tractor and the Original Tractor

#### 3.2.2. Comparison and Analysis of Total Power Consumption and Instantaneous Power Consumption before and after Optimization

## 4. Discussion

## 5. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

## Appendix A

Symbol | Symbol Meaning | Dimension |
---|---|---|

F_{T} | tractor plowing resistance | N |

z | quantity of plowshares | - |

b | width of single plowshare | cm |

h | plowing depth | cm |

k | soil specific resistance | N/cm^{2} |

F_{TN} | rated traction of the electric tractor | N |

η_{T} | traction efficiency | - |

P_{T} | traction power exerted | kW |

P_{M} | effective power of traction motor | kW |

η_{mc} | motor and controller efficiency | - |

η_{m}η _{δ}η _{f} | transmission efficiency | - |

slip efficiency | - | |

rolling efficiency | - | |

F_{t} | driving force | N |

F_{f} | rolling resistance | N |

F_{i} | ramp resistance | N |

f | rolling resistance coefficient | - |

α | slope angle | ° |

i_{g} | transmission ratio of gearbox | - |

i_{0} | transmission ratio of main reducer | - |

r | radius of driving wheel | m |

G | total mass of electric tractor | kg |

v_{T} | traveling speed of electric tractor | km/h |

n_{e} | rated speed of the motor | r/min |

P_{l} | accessory power | kW |

T_{N} | working time of the electric tractor | h |

U | load voltage | V |

E | battery open-circuit voltage | V |

I | battery discharge current | A |

R | internal resistance of the battery | Ω |

u | power distribution coefficient | - |

δ | slip rate | - |

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**Figure 3.**Structural diagram of transmission. 1, Input shaft; 2, Bearing; 3, Input shaft transmission gear; 4, Intermediate shaft drive gear; 5, Intermediate shaft; 6, Intermediate shaft third gear; 7, Gear 2 of intermediate shaft; 8, Support bearing; 9, Gear 1 of intermediate shaft; 10, Gear 1, synchronizer engagement sleeve; 11, Output shaft; 12, Gear 1 of intermediate shaft; 13, Gear 2; 14, Gear 2 of output shaft and Gear 3 of synchronizer joint sleeve; 15, Gear 3 of output shaft.

Components | Parameter | Design Value |
---|---|---|

Vehicle | Curb weight/kg | 3600 |

Rated traction/kN | 12.6 | |

Motor | Rated power (peak power)/kw | 63 (125) |

Rated torque (peak torque)/(Nm) | 300 (600) | |

Rated speed (peak speed)/(r/min) | 2000 (6000) | |

Battery pack | Rated voltage/V | 540 |

Rated capacity/Ah | 110 | |

Number of battery packs | 12 | |

Transmission | Gear 1 ratio | 9.42 |

Gear 2 ratio | 7.54 | |

Gear 3 ratio | 6.12 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Tong, Y.; Zhang, J.; Xu, L.; Yan, X.
Driving System Design and Power Source Parameter Optimization of Tractor with Dual-Motor Coupling Drive. *World Electr. Veh. J.* **2023**, *14*, 63.
https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14030063

**AMA Style**

Tong Y, Zhang J, Xu L, Yan X.
Driving System Design and Power Source Parameter Optimization of Tractor with Dual-Motor Coupling Drive. *World Electric Vehicle Journal*. 2023; 14(3):63.
https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14030063

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Tong, Yikun, Junjiang Zhang, Liyou Xu, and Xianghai Yan.
2023. "Driving System Design and Power Source Parameter Optimization of Tractor with Dual-Motor Coupling Drive" *World Electric Vehicle Journal* 14, no. 3: 63.
https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14030063