# Evaluating the Optimal Electric Vehicle Location for a Hybrid Energy System Controlled with Novel Active Disturbance Rejection Controller

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

#### 1.1. Background

#### 1.2. Related Works and Limitations

#### 1.3. Motivation

#### 1.4. Contributions

- 1.
- This study introduces a robust control scheme based on system disturbance estimation and rejection. The proposed scheme takes into consideration both known disturbances subjected to the system as well as system uncertainties and unknown modelling errors to mitigate their effect on the performance of the developed HES.
- 2.
- The effect of linking EVs to hybrid energy system (HES) performance when connected to different buses of the IEEE-39 bus system is evaluated. Moreover, the optimal location of EVs for improved HES operation is examined.

#### 1.5. Objectives

- 1.
- Development of a standard three-area HES integrated with modern day renewable sources for concurrent frequency and tie-line power control.
- 2.
- Development and implementation of modified robust control scheme in the form of first-order ADRC (1D-ADRC) for the performance increment of the HES and verification of its superiority with respect to applied control strategies available in the literature for establishing concurrent frequency and tie-line power control of the HES.
- 3.
- To investigate the impact of present-day EVs on the HES by connecting the EVs on different buses of the HES and to find the optimal location of EVs for improved operation of the HES.

## 2. Methodology Applied for the Present Work

#### 2.1. Power System under Investigation

#### 2.2. Proposed First-Order Active Disturbance Rejection Controller (1D-ADRC) Modelling

#### 2.3. Arithmetic Optimization Algorithm (AOA)

#### 2.4. Modelling Tools Used

## 3. Result and Discussion

#### 3.1. Secondary Controller Selection

#### 3.2. Controller Robustness against Random Load Disturbances

## 4. Effect of EVs on the HES

#### 4.1. Modelling of EV

#### 4.2. Evaluation of Optimal Location of EVs

#### 4.2.1. EVs Connected in Area 1 Only

#### 4.2.2. EVs Connected in Area 2 Only

#### 4.2.3. EVs Connected in Area 3 Only

#### 4.2.4. EVs Connected in Area 1 and Area 2 Only

#### 4.2.5. EVs Connected in Area 2 and Area 3 Only

#### 4.2.6. EVs Connected in Area 1 and Area 3 Only

#### 4.2.7. EVs Connected in All Three Areas

#### 4.3. Inference from Section 4.2

#### 4.4. Role of EVs in Multi-Energy System

## 5. Conclusions

## 6. Future Scope

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

## Abbreviations

LFC | Load Frequency Control |

HES | Hybrid Energy System |

PID | Proportional Integral Derivative |

ADRC | Active Disturbance Rejection Controller |

AOA | Arithmetic Optimization22 Algorithm |

EV | Electric Vehicle |

V2G | Vehicle-to-Grid |

ISE | Integral Squarred Error |

RES | Renewable Energy Sources |

RLP | Random Load Perturbation |

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**Figure 3.**Proposed 1D-ADRC with ESO for the present HES. (

**a**) ESO block diagram. (

**b**) 1D-ADRC with ESO) model.

**Figure 6.**Response comparison of PID, conventional ADRC, and 1D-ADRC against random disturbances. (

**a**) RLP Pattern; (

**b**) $\Delta {f}_{1}$; (

**c**) $\Delta {f}_{2}$; (

**d**) $\Delta {f}_{3}$.

**Figure 8.**Response comparison when EVs are connected in Area 1 only. (

**a**) $\Delta {f}_{1}$; (

**b**) $\Delta {f}_{2}$; (

**c**) $\Delta {f}_{3}$.

**Figure 9.**Response comparison when EVs are connected in Area 2 only. (

**a**) $\Delta {f}_{1}$; (

**b**) $\Delta {f}_{2}$; (

**c**) $\Delta {f}_{3}$.

**Figure 10.**Response comparison when EVs are connected in Area 3 only. (

**a**) $\Delta {f}_{1}$; (

**b**) $\Delta {f}_{2}$; (

**c**) $\Delta {f}_{3}$.

**Figure 11.**Response comparison when EVs are connected in Area 1 and Area 2 only. (

**a**) $\Delta {f}_{1}$; (

**b**) $\Delta {f}_{2}$; (

**c**) $\Delta {f}_{3}$.

**Figure 12.**Response comparison when EVs are connected in Area 2 and Area 3 only. (

**a**) $\Delta {f}_{1}$; (

**b**) $\Delta {f}_{2}$; (

**c**) $\Delta {f}_{3}$.

**Figure 13.**Response comparison when EVs are connected in Area 1 and Area 3 only. (

**a**) $\Delta {f}_{1}$; (

**b**) $\Delta {f}_{2}$; (

**c**) $\Delta {f}_{3}$.

**Figure 14.**Response comparison when EVs are connected in all the three areas. (

**a**) $\Delta {f}_{1}$; (

**b**) $\Delta {f}_{2}$; (

**c**) $\Delta {f}_{3}$.

**Figure 15.**Response comparison when EVs are connected Area 1 only, Area 1 and Area 2, Area 1 and Area 3 of the HES. (

**a**) $\Delta {f}_{1}$; (

**b**) $\Delta {f}_{2}$; (

**c**) $\Delta {f}_{3}$.

Parameter | Value |
---|---|

Population size | 100 |

No. of iterations | 50 |

Parameter lower limit | 0 |

Parameter upper limit | 100 |

Dimension size | 6 |

Alpha | 5 |

Mu | 0.499 |

$MO{P}_{Max}$ | 1 |

$MO{P}_{Min}$ | 0.2 |

**Table 2.**Observations of Figure 5.

Parameter | Controller | LU | HV | RT |
---|---|---|---|---|

$\Delta {f}_{1}$ | PID | −0.0192 | 0.0009 | 19.41 |

ADRC | −0.0108 | 0.0003 | 14.3 | |

1D-ADRC | −0.0029 | 0.001 | 7.05 | |

$\Delta {f}_{2}$ | PID | −0.0074 | 6.5 $\times {10}^{-5}$ | 21.2 |

ADRC | −0.0029 | 0.0001 | 18.61 | |

1D-ADRC | −0.0004 | 0.0001 | 8.6 | |

$\Delta {f}_{3}$ | PID | −0.0061 | 7.4 $\times {10}^{-5}$ | 23.02 |

ADRC | −0.0026 | 0.0001 | 20.12 | |

1D-ADRC | −0.0005 | 0.0001 | 9.94 | |

$\Delta {P}_{tie12}$ | PID | −0.0013 | 1.1 $\times {10}^{-5}$ | 23.05 |

ADRC | −0.0005 | 2.3 $\times {10}^{-5}$ | 18.19 | |

1D-ADRC | −0.0001 | 3.5 $\times {10}^{-5}$ | 8.56 | |

$\Delta {P}_{tie23}$ | PID | −1.1 $\times {10}^{-5}$ | 0.0013 | 23.20 |

ADRC | −2.3 $\times {10}^{-5}$ | 0.0005 | 20.12 | |

1D-ADRC | −3.5 $\times {10}^{-5}$ | 0.0001 | 9.68 | |

$\Delta {P}_{tie13}$ | PID | −0.0062 | 6.4 $\times {10}^{-5}$ | 23.54 |

ADRC | −0.0025 | 0.0001 | 20.78 | |

1D-ADRC | −0.001 | 0.0003 | 10.91 |

Controller | ISE Value (Objective Function) |
---|---|

PID | 0.00034 |

conventional-ADRC | 0.00019 |

1D-ADRC | 0.00014 |

Combination | ISE Value (Objective Function) |
---|---|

EVs in Area 1 only | 0.00012760 |

EVs in Area 2 only | 0.00014579 |

EVs in Area 3 only | 0.00014604 |

EVs in Area 1 and Area 2 | 0.00012774 |

EVs in Area 2 and Area 3 | 0.00014588 |

EVs in Area 1 and Area 3 | 0.00012673 |

EVs in all three areas | 0.00012804 |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Farooq, Z.; Safiullah, S.; Rahman, A.; Hussain, S.M.S.; Ustun, T.S.
Evaluating the Optimal Electric Vehicle Location for a Hybrid Energy System Controlled with Novel Active Disturbance Rejection Controller. *World Electr. Veh. J.* **2022**, *13*, 192.
https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj13100192

**AMA Style**

Farooq Z, Safiullah S, Rahman A, Hussain SMS, Ustun TS.
Evaluating the Optimal Electric Vehicle Location for a Hybrid Energy System Controlled with Novel Active Disturbance Rejection Controller. *World Electric Vehicle Journal*. 2022; 13(10):192.
https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj13100192

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Farooq, Zahid, Sheikh Safiullah, Asadur Rahman, S. M. Suhail Hussain, and Taha Selim Ustun.
2022. "Evaluating the Optimal Electric Vehicle Location for a Hybrid Energy System Controlled with Novel Active Disturbance Rejection Controller" *World Electric Vehicle Journal* 13, no. 10: 192.
https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj13100192