# I-SA Algorithm Based Optimization Design and Mode-Switching Strategy for a Novel 3-Axis-Simpson Dual-Motor Coupling Drive System of PEV

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Materials and Methods

#### 2.1. A Novel 3-Axis-Simpson Dual-Motor Coupling Drive System

_{1}and P

_{2}) are adopted, and two sun gears of double rows, planetary carrier of P

_{1}and gear ring of P

_{2}are bunded.

_{1}, i

_{2}and i

_{3}(among them, i

_{1}adopts the way of setting external gear in P

_{2}gear ring to further realize lightweight), two clutches C

_{1}and C

_{2}and three transmission shafts. The novel system has two working modes. As PEV is running, the output power of motor 1 and motor 2 is transmitted to the sun gear of P

_{1}(or P

_{2}) and the planetary carrier of P

_{1}(or gear ring of P

_{2}), respectively. When the clutch C

_{1}is combined, the coupled power is exported from the gear ring of P

_{1}and then through the i

_{2}gear pair to the output shaft (Mode 1). In a similar manner, when the clutch C

_{2}is combined, the coupled power is exported from the planetary carrier of P

_{2}and then through the i

_{3}gear pair to the output shaft (Mode 2). Therefore, the change of working mode can be easily realized by switching clutch C

_{1}and C

_{2}.

- (1)
- Mode 1:$${n}_{out}=\frac{{i}_{1}{n}_{m1}+(1+{k}_{1}){n}_{m2}}{{i}_{1}{i}_{2}{k}_{1}}$$$$\left|{T}_{m1}\right|=\left|\frac{{i}_{1}{T}_{m2}}{1+{k}_{1}}\right|=\left|\frac{{F}_{L}{r}_{d}}{{i}_{2}{i}_{0}{\eta}_{sys}{k}_{1}}\right|$$
- (2)
- Mode 2:$${n}_{out}=\frac{{k}_{2}{n}_{m2}-{i}_{1}{n}_{m1}}{{i}_{1}{i}_{3}(1+{k}_{2})}$$$$\left|{T}_{m1}\right|=\left|\frac{{i}_{1}{T}_{m2}}{{k}_{2}}\right|=\left|\frac{{F}_{L}{r}_{d}}{{i}_{3}{i}_{0}{\eta}_{sys}(1+{k}_{2})}\right|$$

#### 2.2. Design Demand Calculation of PEV

#### 2.3. Data Acquisition of Motor Characteristics and Model Establishment

#### 2.4. Method of Parameter Matching and Mode Switching Strategy Based on I-SA

## 3. Results

## 4. Conclusions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 1.**The new drive system proposed in this paper: (

**a**) power transmitting route and (

**b**) transmission scheme.

**Figure 2.**Characteristics of motor 1: (

**a**) full load speed characteristics; (

**b**) efficiency characteristics; and (

**c**) contour plot of characteristics.

**Figure 3.**Characteristics of motor 2: (

**a**) full load speed characteristics; (

**b**) efficiency characteristics; and (

**c**) contour plot of characteristics.

**Figure 7.**Vehicle characteristics of working mode 1 under original parameters. (

**a**) MAP of efficiency characteristic; (

**b**) working area and corresponding efficiency.

**Figure 8.**Vehicle characteristics of working mode 2 under original parameters. (

**a**) MAP of efficiency characteristic; (

**b**) working area and corresponding efficiency.

**Figure 10.**Characteristics of optimized PEV. (

**a**) MAP of efficiency characteristic; (

**b**) working area.

Mass of Vehicle m | Frontal Area A | Coefficient of Air Resistance C_{d} | Rolling Radius of Tire r_{d} | Vehicle Maximum Speed u_{a}_{_max} |
---|---|---|---|---|

1330 kg | 2.12 m^{2} | 0.37 | 0.258 m | ≥130 km/h |

i_{1} | i_{2} | i_{3} | k_{1} | k_{2} | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Original value | 1.0000 | 0.8000 | 1.0000 | 3.5000 | 3.0000 |

Optimized value | 0.5004 | 0.7054 | 0.9512 | 2.0039 | 2.9034 |

Before Optimization | After Optimization | |||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

PEV | Mode 1 | Mode 2 | PEV | Mode 1 | Mode 2 | |

Maximum speed (km/h) | 131.51 | 131.51 | 92.06 | 142.56 | 142.56 | 109.49 |

Range of power (kW) | 0~43 | 0~43 | 0~26.33 | 0~43 | 0~43 | 0~26.33 |

Highest efficiency (%) | 91.34 | 90.37 | 91.34 | 91.19 | 90.28 | 91.19 |

Mean efficiency (%) | 81.72 | 81.45 | 82.43 | 83.91 | 83.67 | 83.24 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Cheng, Z.
I-SA Algorithm Based Optimization Design and Mode-Switching Strategy for a Novel 3-Axis-Simpson Dual-Motor Coupling Drive System of PEV. *World Electr. Veh. J.* **2021**, *12*, 221.
https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj12040221

**AMA Style**

Cheng Z.
I-SA Algorithm Based Optimization Design and Mode-Switching Strategy for a Novel 3-Axis-Simpson Dual-Motor Coupling Drive System of PEV. *World Electric Vehicle Journal*. 2021; 12(4):221.
https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj12040221

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Cheng, Zhun.
2021. "I-SA Algorithm Based Optimization Design and Mode-Switching Strategy for a Novel 3-Axis-Simpson Dual-Motor Coupling Drive System of PEV" *World Electric Vehicle Journal* 12, no. 4: 221.
https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj12040221