# A Novel Method for Busbar Design of Electric Vehicle Motor Drive

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Three-Dimensional Line Probe Algorithm

_{ab}and l

_{cd}is, point

**a**and point

**b**are on the opposite sides of line-segment l

_{cd}, and points

**c**, point

**d**are on the opposite sides of line-segment l

_{ab}. According to the cross product of the vector, the judgement of intersection can be interpreted as, $\overrightarrow{ab}\times \overrightarrow{ad}$ is different from $\overrightarrow{ab}\times \overrightarrow{ac}$, and $\overrightarrow{cd}\times \overrightarrow{ca}$ is different from $\overrightarrow{cd}\times \overrightarrow{cb}$. The situation in Figure 6b can be regarded as a special case of Figure 6a. In Figure 6b, line-segment l

_{ac}and l

_{ab}are collinear. Therefore, for the situation in Figure 6b, the judgement of intersection can be interpreted as, one value of $\overrightarrow{ab}\times \overrightarrow{cd}$ and $\overrightarrow{ab}\times \overrightarrow{ac}$ is equal to 0, and $\overrightarrow{cd}\times \overrightarrow{ca}$ is different from $\overrightarrow{cd}\times cb$. For the case where two lines are parallel, as shown in Figure 6c–e, only Figure 6e has the intersected lines. Therefore, if two parallel line segments intersect, they must be collinear. However, their intersecting is not necessarily guaranteed if they are collinear. As shown in Figure 6e, to ensure the intersection, the starting point of l

_{ab}must be less than or equal to the starting point of l

_{cd}, and the starting point of l

_{cd}must be less than or equal to the end point of l

_{ab}.

## 3. The Implement of Three-Dimensional Line Probe Algorithm in Three-Dimensional Space

**S**elongates in six orthogonal directions to x-axis, y-axis and z-axis at the same time. It does not stop the elongation until encountering obstacles (lines or planes). As can be seen from Figure 7b, the escape line (red dotted line) of point

**S**along z-axis stops the elongating when it encounters line obstacles. Because the escape line along the y-axis never encounter any obstacles, it can elongate infinitely. To avoid this issue, the boundary constraint of the whole system is added, which is equivalent to the shell of the motor drive.

_{ab}in x-axis direction are S

_{a}(x

_{a},y

_{a},z

_{a}) and S

_{b}(x

_{b},y

_{b},z

_{b}), respectively. Taking the escape points along the x-axis as an example, the position of the left escape point S

_{x}

_{1}is (x

_{a}+ u, y

_{a},z

_{a}), and the position of the right escape point S

_{x}

_{2}is (x

_{b}− u, y

_{b},z

_{b}), where u is the minimum wiring spacing. Similarly, the positions of escape points in y-axis and z-axis directions can be defined.

_{x}

_{1}and S

_{x}

_{2}. Different from escape lines generated from the source point S, new escape lines are generated from both the escape points S

_{x}

_{1}and S

_{x}

_{2}, and only towards the y and z axes, as is shown in Figure 7c.

## 4. Verification of the Three-Dimensional Line Probe Algorithm

## 5. Expansion of Bus Structure

_{g}= 10 Ω, U

_{GE}= +20 V/−5 V. The test waveform under the conduction conditions of 600 V/300 A is shown in Figure 14. Test data of stray inductance are shown in Table 4, where it can be seen that the stray of the bus is less than 38 nH and the bus meets the design requirements of the motor control system.

## 6. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 2.**(

**a**) Power module, (

**b**) The equivalent cube of the power module, (

**c**) A model of a power module and its connecting terminals in a program, (

**d**) Capacitor core, (

**e**) The equivalent cube of a capacitor core, (

**f**) The model of the capacitor core and its connecting terminals in the program.

**Figure 3.**(

**a**) The surface obstacle is in the orthogonal directions of x-axis. (

**b**) The surface obstacle is in the orthogonal directions of y-axis. (

**c**) The surface obstacle is in the orthogonal directions of z-axis.

**Figure 4.**(

**a**) The line obstacle is in the orthogonal directions of z-axis. (

**b**) The line obstacle is in the orthogonal directions of x-axis. (

**c**) The line obstacle is in the orthogonal directions of y-axis.

**Figure 5.**Three cases of intersection of two line- segments in Slist and Tlist. (

**a**) The intersection plane is parallel to xoz. (

**b**) The intersection plane is parallel to xoy. (

**c**) The intersection plane is parallel to yoz.

**Figure 6.**Intersection of two line-segments in a plane; (

**a**,

**b**) shows the two line-segments are perpendicular; (

**c**–

**e**) shows the two line-segments are parallel.

**Figure 7.**(

**a**)The source point S stop the elongation for encountering obstacles (lines or planes). (

**b**) Coordinate selection of the escape point. (

**c**) The extension of new escape points.

**Figure 8.**(

**a**) The randomly generated layouts; (

**b**) the routing results of our routing algorithm; (

**c**) the final result of the bus connection.

**Figure 9.**(

**a**) The randomly generated layouts; (

**b**) the routing results of our routing algorithm; (

**c**) the final result of the bus connection.

**Figure 10.**(

**a**) The randomly generated layouts; (

**b**) the routing results of our routing algorithm; (

**c**) the final result of the bus connection.

**Figure 11.**(

**a**) A situation where two components are distributed horizontally; (

**b**) Different ways of spreading through the bus between two components distributed horizontally.

**Figure 12.**(

**a**) A situation where two components are distributed vertically; (

**b**) Different ways of spreading through the bus between two components distributed vertically.

**Figure 13.**(

**a**) Layout of bus capacitance and power modules; (

**b**) Results of automatic bus design; (

**c**) 3D model of the actual bus designed according to the results of the automatic bus design; (

**d**) Explosion diagram of the entire motor controller.

**Figure 14.**(

**a**) ΔI of the test waveform under the conduction condition of 600 V/300 A; (

**b**) ΔU of the test waveform under the conduction condition of 600 V/300 A.

Component | Length | Width | Heigth | Number |
---|---|---|---|---|

Power module | 140 | 113 | 17.5 | 1 |

Busbar capacitance | 28.2 | 60 | 27.1 | 8 |

Driver board | 140 | 102 | 7 | 1 |

Control panel | 85 | 60 | 5.5 | 1 |

Heat Sink | 105 | 50 | 8 | 1 |

Component | Positive Terminal | Negative Terminal |
---|---|---|

Power module | (59, 7.5, 17.6) | (81, 7.5, 17.6) |

Busbar capacitance | (−1, 30, 13.55) | (29.3, 30, 13.55) |

Number of Randomly Generated Layouts | Average Wiring Time | Maximum Wiring Time | Completion Rate |
---|---|---|---|

1000 | 0.6943 | 1.7359 | 100% |

Udc/V | Conduction Time/us | Ic/A | ΔU/V | ΔI/A | ΔT/ns | Stray Inductance/nH |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

600 | 22 | 300 | 120 | 200 | 63 | 38 |

Busbar Design Method | The Time to Design a Bus Structure in the Same Component Layout | Design Principles | Implementation |
---|---|---|---|

Literature [18,19] | A few hours or more | The opening size and punching position on the busbar were adjusted according to the simulation results of Q3D software | manual |

Literature [20,21,22] | A few hours or more | According to the simulation results of Q3D software, the size of the busbar, the structure of the opening and the connecting terminal are adjusted | manual |

Method proposed in this paper | The average time is 0.6943 s | The three principles of busbar design | automatic |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Huang, Y.; Ning, P.; Cao, H.; Fan, T.
A Novel Method for Busbar Design of Electric Vehicle Motor Drive. *World Electr. Veh. J.* **2021**, *12*, 186.
https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj12040186

**AMA Style**

Huang Y, Ning P, Cao H, Fan T.
A Novel Method for Busbar Design of Electric Vehicle Motor Drive. *World Electric Vehicle Journal*. 2021; 12(4):186.
https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj12040186

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Huang, Yunhao, Puqi Ning, Han Cao, and Tao Fan.
2021. "A Novel Method for Busbar Design of Electric Vehicle Motor Drive" *World Electric Vehicle Journal* 12, no. 4: 186.
https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj12040186