# An Efficient Vector Control Policy for EV-Hybrid Excited Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motor

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## Abstract

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Nomenclature | |

${V}_{ds},{V}_{qs}$ | the d- and q-axis stator voltage components |

${I}_{ds},{I}_{qs}$ | the d- and q-axis stator current components |

${I}_{d},{I}_{q}$ | d–q-axis armature inductance current components |

${I}_{dc},{I}_{qc}$ | the d- and q-axis core resistance current components |

${\psi}_{d},{\psi}_{q}$ | the d- and q-axis flux linkage components |

${\psi}_{pm},{\psi}_{f}$ | the permanent-magnet and excitation flux linkages |

${\varnothing}_{pm}$ | the permanent-magnet flux |

${\omega}_{r},p$ | the electrical angular velocity and pole pairs number. |

${L}_{d},{L}_{q}$ | the d- and q-axis inductances |

${M}_{sf}$ | stator and excitation windings mutual inductance |

${V}_{f},{I}_{f}$ | the excitation voltage and current. |

${R}_{s},{R}_{c}$ | the stator winding and core resistances |

${E}_{d},{E}_{q}$ | the d- and q-axis induced EMF components. |

${R}_{f},{L}_{f}$ | the excitation winding resistance and inductance |

$T,N$ | the motor torque and mechanical speed |

${T}_{r},{P}_{r}$ | the motor rated torque and rated output power |

${N}_{r},{N}_{b},{N}_{m}$ | the mechanical rated, base, and maximum speed |

${V}_{s},{\psi}_{s}$ | the stator voltage and flux linkage |

${\phi}_{s}$ | the angle between stator voltage and q-axis |

${\delta}_{s}$ | the angle between stator flux linkage and d-axis |

${\omega}_{s},SR$ | the electrical synchronous speed and speed ratio |

${I}_{sr},{K}_{e}$ | the rated stator current and machine constant |

${I}_{qmax}$ | the maximum q-axis stator inductance current |

${T}_{m},{T}_{b}$ | the motor maximum torque and motor base torque |

${E}_{a},{I}_{a}$ | the armature (stator) induced voltage and current |

$Fcr$ | the rated field current |

${E}_{ao},{\psi}_{do}$ | the no-load armature EMF and d-axis flux linkage |

## 1. Introduction

- Better flux-weakening capability in all modes.
- Good alternative to PM alternators with power converter in generating mode
- An easier achievement of high-speed operation with higher energy efficiency in motoring mode. The PMs provide the constant flux and the field current can boost or weaken the overall flux.

## 2. EV-Based HEPMSM Mathematical Model

## 3. Practical Ideal Torque–Speed Profile of Traction Motor Drive for EV/HEV

## 4. Proposed FC Control with ZDAC Strategy

#### 4.1. Constant Torque Region Control (CT)

_{b}where N

_{b}is lower than rated speed N

_{r}. Maximum torque is defined by the constantly rated stator current limit (Equation (19)) with detailed characteristic is given in Section 5. Within this speed range, both PM and constant excitation field fluxes produce constant flux. They are superimposed in the air gap and armature winding. The field current is nearly at its rated value (95% of rated value) to create 30% of the PM flux for field strengthening. If the iron loss equivalent resistance (R

_{c}> 10R

_{s}), it can be neglected [11].

#### 4.2. Proposed Flux-Weakening Control (CP)

_{b}. To do this the field current must be adjustable. It may be reduced or even reversed to weaken the flux. Previous researches apply bidirectional field current starting with PM flux aiding (described by +ve) then reverses its direction to weaken the flux (described by −ve) passing through zero value as shown in Figure 5a. A reduced +ve linear field current is proposed in this paper. The two fields of PM and FC are superimposed as shown in Figure 5b to avoid the demagnetization effect.

## 5. EV Motor Optimum Control Strategies

## 6. Modeling and Simulation

## 7. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## Appendix A

$p$ | 4 |

${N}_{b}$ | 500 rpm |

${T}_{b}$ | 13 N.m |

${I}_{sr}$ | 5 A |

${I}_{fr}$ | 1 A |

${P}_{r}$ | 700 Watt |

${R}_{s}$ | 2.7 ohm |

${R}_{f}$ | 33 ohm |

${L}_{d}$ | 38 mH |

${L}_{q}$ | 27 mH |

${L}_{f}$ | 0.57 H |

${M}_{sf}$ | 76 mH |

${\varnothing}_{pm}$ | 0.243 Wb |

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**Figure 3.**(

**a**) Ideal output characteristics of traction motor drive; (

**b**) Tractive effort and power versus vehicle speed with different speed ratios [19].

**Figure 5.**(

**a**) Flux-weakening control using +ve and –ve field current (FC); (

**b**) proposed flux-weakening control using +ve FC.

**Figure 15.**EV motor power/speed patterns. R: Rated torque operation with low acceleration, light load, and less stable speed operating region with less speed ratio; B: Optimum torque with about 40% higher than required power, (overdesign), low acceleration, and less stable speed operating region with less speed ratio; O: Optimum maximum torque with high acceleration and MTPA with a high-speed ratio.

**Figure 19.**Simulation results at the base and rated speed operating patterns. (

**a**,

**b**) Dynamic results as compared by steady-state characteristics. (

**c**–

**g**) Dynamic characteristics at CT up to base speed (proposed) as compared by CT up to rated speed (conventional).

© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Elsonbaty, N.A.; Enany, M.A.; Hassanin, M.I.
An Efficient Vector Control Policy for EV-Hybrid Excited Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motor. *World Electr. Veh. J.* **2020**, *11*, 42.
https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj11020042

**AMA Style**

Elsonbaty NA, Enany MA, Hassanin MI.
An Efficient Vector Control Policy for EV-Hybrid Excited Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motor. *World Electric Vehicle Journal*. 2020; 11(2):42.
https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj11020042

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Elsonbaty, Nadia A., Mohamed A. Enany, and Mahmoud I. Hassanin.
2020. "An Efficient Vector Control Policy for EV-Hybrid Excited Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motor" *World Electric Vehicle Journal* 11, no. 2: 42.
https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj11020042