Comparative Study of Distributed Consensus Gossip Algorithms for Network Size Estimation in Multi-Agent Systems
1.1. Theoretical Background into Multi-Agent Systems
- Autonomy is the ability to operate without any human interaction and to control its own actions/inner state.
- Reactivity is the ability to react to a dynamic surrounding environment.
- Social ability is the ability to communicate with other agents or human beings.
- Pro-activeness is the ability to act as an initiative entity and not only to respond to an external stimulus.
1.2. Data Aggregation in Multi-Agent Systems
- Centralized architecture: Data aggregation is carried out by the fusion node, which collects the raw data from all the other agents in the system. Thus, all the agents measure the quantity of interest and are only required to deliver this information to the fusion node subsequently. Therefore, this approach is not too appropriate for real-world systems since it is characterized by a significant time delay, a massive transmitted information amount, high vulnerability to potential threats, etc.
- Decentralized architecture: In this approach, there is no single point of data aggregation in contrast to the centralized architecture. In this case, each agent autonomously aggregates its local information with data obtained from its peers. Despite many advantages, decentralized architecture also has several shortcomings, e.g., communication costs, poor scalability, etc.
- Distributed architecture: Each agent in a system independently processes its measurement; therefore, the object state is executed only according to the local information. This approach is characterized by a significant reduction of communication and communication cost, thereby gaining in popularity and finding a wide application in real-world systems over recent years [13,14,15,16].
- Hierarchical architecture: This architecture (also referred to as hybrid architecture) is a combination of the decentralized and the distributed architecture, executing data aggregation at different levels at the hierarchy.
1.3. Consensus Theory
- Deterministic algorithms include the Metropolis–Hastings algorithm, the Max-Degree weights algorithm, the Best Constant weights algorithm, the Convex Optimized weights algorithm, etc.
- Gossip algorithms include the Push-Sum protocol, the Push-Pull protocol, the Randomized gossip algorithm, the Broadcast gossip algorithm, etc.
1.4. Our Contribution
- Randomized gossip algorithm (RG);
- Geographic gossip algorithm (GG);
- Broadcast gossip algorithm (BG);
- Push-Sum protocol (PS); and
- Push-Pull protocol (PP).
1.5. Paper Organization
2. Related Work
3. Mathematical Model of Multi-Agent Systems
4. Examined Distributed Consensus Gossip-Based Algorithms
4.1. Randomized Gossip Algorithm
4.2. Geographic Gossip Algorithm
4.3. Broadcast Gossip Algorithm
4.4. Push-Sum Protocol
- sum s (initiated with either “1” (leader) or “0” (other agents) when the network size is estimated); and
- weight w (each agent sets its value to “1”).
4.5. Push-Pull Protocol
4.6. Comparison of Distributed Gossip Consensus Algorithms with Deterministic Ones
5. Applied Research Methodology
- Scenario 1: In this scenario, the value of the current inner states is relevant in the decision about whether or not to stop an algorithm at the current time instance. This stopping criterion is defined in (10), meaning that an algorithm is stopped at the time instance when (10) is met for the first time.
- Scenario 2: In the case of applying the other applied stopping criterion, the values of the current network size estimates are checked instead of the inner states. In this scenario, the consensus is considered to be achieved when (11) is met.
- The best-connected agent is the leader.
- The worst-connected agent is the leader.
6. Experiments and Discussion
- Experiments: In this subsection, we present the results from numeral experiments for each examined algorithm. In Figure 10 and Figure 11, we provide the number of sent messages for consensus and the estimation precision, respectively, in both scenarios, for four values of the parameter P, and with the best-connected agent selected as the leader. In Figure 12 and Figure 13, the results obtained in experiments with the worst-connected agent as the leader are provided. In Figure 14, the distribution of the sent messages over 10,000 runs for each algorithm, in both scenarios, for each value of P, and with the best-connected agent selected as the leader is provided.
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
|BG||Broadcast gossip algorithm|
|GG||Geographic gossip algorithm|
|NaN||Not a Number|
|RG||Randomized gossip algorithm|
|RGG||Random geometric graph|
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|Graph Parameter||Numerical Value|
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Kenyeres, M.; Kenyeres, J. Comparative Study of Distributed Consensus Gossip Algorithms for Network Size Estimation in Multi-Agent Systems. Future Internet 2021, 13, 134. https://doi.org/10.3390/fi13050134
Kenyeres M, Kenyeres J. Comparative Study of Distributed Consensus Gossip Algorithms for Network Size Estimation in Multi-Agent Systems. Future Internet. 2021; 13(5):134. https://doi.org/10.3390/fi13050134Chicago/Turabian Style
Kenyeres, Martin, and Jozef Kenyeres. 2021. "Comparative Study of Distributed Consensus Gossip Algorithms for Network Size Estimation in Multi-Agent Systems" Future Internet 13, no. 5: 134. https://doi.org/10.3390/fi13050134