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Article

Architecting an Agent-Based Fault Diagnosis Engine for IEC 61499 Industrial Cyber-Physical Systems

Department of Computer Science and Software Engineering School of Engineering, Computer and Mathematical Sciences, Auckland University of Technology, Private Bag 92006, Auckland 1142, New Zealand
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Academic Editors: Agostino Poggi, Ivana Budinská, Martin Kenyeres and Ladislav Hluchy
Future Internet 2021, 13(8), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi13080190
Received: 29 June 2021 / Revised: 15 July 2021 / Accepted: 16 July 2021 / Published: 23 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Trends in Multi-Agent Systems)
IEC 61499 is a reference architecture for constructing Industrial Cyber-Physical Systems (ICPS). However, current function block development environments only provide limited fault-finding capabilities. There is a need for comprehensive diagnostic tools that help engineers identify faults, both during development and after deployment. This article presents the software architecture for an agent-based fault diagnostic engine that equips agents with domain-knowledge of IEC 61499. The engine encourages a Model-Driven Development with Diagnostics methodology where agents work alongside engineers during iterative cycles of design, development, diagnosis and refinement. Attribute-Driven Design (ADD) was used to propose the architecture to capture fault telemetry directly from the ICPS. A Views and Beyond Software Architecture Document presents the architecture. The Architecturally-Significant Requirement (ASRs) were used to design the views while an Architectural Trade-off Analysis Method (ATAM) evaluated critical parts of the architecture. The agents locate faults during both early-stage development and later provide long-term fault management. The architecture introduces dynamic, low-latency software-in-loop Diagnostic Points (DPs) that operate under the control of an agent to capture fault telemetry. Using sound architectural design approaches and documentation methods, coupled with rigorous evaluation and prototyping, the article demonstrates how quality attributes, risks and architectural trade-offs were identified and mitigated early before the construction of the engine commenced. View Full-Text
Keywords: industrial cyber-physical systems; IEC 61499; function blocks; quality-driven architectures; fault diagnostics; multi-agent systems industrial cyber-physical systems; IEC 61499; function blocks; quality-driven architectures; fault diagnostics; multi-agent systems
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dowdeswell, B.; Sinha, R.; MacDonell, S.G. Architecting an Agent-Based Fault Diagnosis Engine for IEC 61499 Industrial Cyber-Physical Systems. Future Internet 2021, 13, 190. https://doi.org/10.3390/fi13080190

AMA Style

Dowdeswell B, Sinha R, MacDonell SG. Architecting an Agent-Based Fault Diagnosis Engine for IEC 61499 Industrial Cyber-Physical Systems. Future Internet. 2021; 13(8):190. https://doi.org/10.3390/fi13080190

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dowdeswell, Barry, Roopak Sinha, and Stephen G. MacDonell. 2021. "Architecting an Agent-Based Fault Diagnosis Engine for IEC 61499 Industrial Cyber-Physical Systems" Future Internet 13, no. 8: 190. https://doi.org/10.3390/fi13080190

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