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Pharmaceutics 2017, 9(4), 37;

Topical Nano and Microemulsions for Skin Delivery

School of Pharmacy, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, G.P.O. Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845, Australia
Faculty of Pharmacy, Sanata Dharma University, Yogyakarta 55282, Indonesia
Therapeutics Research Centre, The University of Queensland Diamentina Institute, Faculty of Medicine, Translational Research Institute, Woolloongabba, QLD 4102, Australia
School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Received: 11 August 2017 / Revised: 11 September 2017 / Accepted: 13 September 2017 / Published: 21 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Technology of Transdermal and Topical Drug Delivery)
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Nanosystems such as microemulsions (ME) and nanoemulsions (NE) offer considerable opportunities for targeted drug delivery to and via the skin. ME and NE are stable colloidal systems composed of oil and water, stabilised by a mixture of surfactants and cosurfactants, that have received particular interest as topical skin delivery systems. There is considerable scope to manipulate the formulation components and characteristics to achieve optimal bioavailability and minimal skin irritancy. This includes the incorporation of established chemical penetration enhancers to fluidize the stratum corneum lipid bilayers, thus reducing the primary skin barrier and increasing permeation. This review discusses nanosystems with utility in skin delivery and focuses on the composition and characterization of ME and NE for topical and transdermal delivery. The mechanism of skin delivery across the stratum corneum and via hair follicles is reviewed with particular focus on the influence of formulation. View Full-Text
Keywords: microemulsion; nanoemulsion; transdermal; skin penetration; penetration enhancer; nanosystem microemulsion; nanoemulsion; transdermal; skin penetration; penetration enhancer; nanosystem

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Nastiti, C.M.R.R.; Ponto, T.; Abd, E.; Grice, J.E.; Benson, H.A.E.; Roberts, M.S. Topical Nano and Microemulsions for Skin Delivery. Pharmaceutics 2017, 9, 37.

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