Next Article in Journal
Nitric-Oxide-Releasing Dexamethasone Derivative NCX-1005 Improves Lung Function and Attenuates Inflammation in Experimental Lavage-Induced ARDS
Previous Article in Journal
mRNA, a Revolution in Biomedicine
Previous Article in Special Issue
Hyaluronic Acid-Glycine-Cholesterol Conjugate-Based Nanoemulsion as a Potent Vaccine Adjuvant for T Cell-Mediated Immunity
Review

Nanovaccine Delivery Approaches and Advanced Delivery Systems for the Prevention of Viral Infections: From Development to Clinical Application

1
Leicester Institute for Pharmaceutical Innovation, Leicester School of Pharmacy, De Montfort University, Leicester LE1 9BH, UK
2
Wrightington, Wigan and Leigh Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, National Health Service, Wigan WN6 0SZ, UK
3
School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE, UK
4
Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44519, Egypt
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this paper.
Academic Editor: Imran Saleem
Pharmaceutics 2021, 13(12), 2091; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13122091
Received: 11 November 2021 / Revised: 30 November 2021 / Accepted: 1 December 2021 / Published: 5 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials: Immunological Perspective)
Viral infections causing pandemics and chronic diseases are the main culprits implicated in devastating global clinical and socioeconomic impacts, as clearly manifested during the current COVID-19 pandemic. Immunoprophylaxis via mass immunisation with vaccines has been shown to be an efficient strategy to control such viral infections, with the successful and recently accelerated development of different types of vaccines, thanks to the advanced biotechnological techniques involved in the upstream and downstream processing of these products. However, there is still much work to be done for the improvement of efficacy and safety when it comes to the choice of delivery systems, formulations, dosage form and route of administration, which are not only crucial for immunisation effectiveness, but also for vaccine stability, dose frequency, patient convenience and logistics for mass immunisation. In this review, we discuss the main vaccine delivery systems and associated challenges, as well as the recent success in developing nanomaterials-based and advanced delivery systems to tackle these challenges. Manufacturing and regulatory requirements for the development of these systems for successful clinical and marketing authorisation were also considered. Here, we comprehensively review nanovaccines from development to clinical application, which will be relevant to vaccine developers, regulators, and clinicians. View Full-Text
Keywords: vaccine; virus; nanomaterials; delivery; immunisation vaccine; virus; nanomaterials; delivery; immunisation
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Cordeiro, A.S.; Patil-Sen, Y.; Shivkumar, M.; Patel, R.; Khedr, A.; Elsawy, M.A. Nanovaccine Delivery Approaches and Advanced Delivery Systems for the Prevention of Viral Infections: From Development to Clinical Application. Pharmaceutics 2021, 13, 2091. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13122091

AMA Style

Cordeiro AS, Patil-Sen Y, Shivkumar M, Patel R, Khedr A, Elsawy MA. Nanovaccine Delivery Approaches and Advanced Delivery Systems for the Prevention of Viral Infections: From Development to Clinical Application. Pharmaceutics. 2021; 13(12):2091. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13122091

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cordeiro, Ana S., Yogita Patil-Sen, Maitreyi Shivkumar, Ronak Patel, Abdulwahhab Khedr, and Mohamed A. Elsawy. 2021. "Nanovaccine Delivery Approaches and Advanced Delivery Systems for the Prevention of Viral Infections: From Development to Clinical Application" Pharmaceutics 13, no. 12: 2091. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13122091

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop