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Open AccessArticle

In Vitro Antigenotoxic, Antihelminthic and Antioxidant Potentials Based on the Extracted Metabolites from Lichen, Candelariella vitellina

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Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Menoufia University, Menoufia 32511, Egypt
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College of Pharmaceutical Science & Collaborative Innovation Center of Yangtze River Delta Region Green Pharmaceuticals, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014, China
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Phytochemistry and Plant Systematics Department, National Research Centre, 33 El Bohouth St., Dokki, Giza 12622, Egypt
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Chemistry of Natural and Microbial Products Department, Pharmaceutical Industries Researches Division, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza 12311, Egypt
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Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden
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International Research Center for Food Nutrition and Safety, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China
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Al-Rayan Research and Innovation Center, Al-Rayan Colleges, Medina 42541, Saudi Arabia
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Pharmacognosy Group, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Uppsala University, 75 123 Uppsala, Sweden
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Parasitology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Menoufia 32511, Egypt
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Biochemistry Department, King Khalid University, Abha 61321, Saudi Arabia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(5), 477; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12050477
Received: 27 April 2020 / Revised: 17 May 2020 / Accepted: 20 May 2020 / Published: 24 May 2020
Lichens have recently received great attention due to their pharmacological potentials. The antigenotoxic potential of C. vitellina extract (25 and 50 µg/mL) was assessed in normal human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBL) against Mitomycin C (MMC) co-treatments. Flow cytometric analyses of cell cycle distribution, as well as apoptosis (Annexin V/PI), revealed that the extract had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) ameliorated the MMC toxicity by reducing the apoptotic cells and normalized the cell cycle phases. C. vitellina exhibited antigenotoxicity by ameliorating the diminished mitotic index and DNA single-strand breaks caused by MMC. Herein, the hydromethanolic extract (80%) of Candelariella vitellina (Japan) lichen, exhibited very low cytotoxicity towards normal human peripheral lymphocytes (HPBL) with IC50 >1000 µg/mL. In order to explore the antihelminthic effect, Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces were used in vitro. Eosin staining revealed significant (p ≤ 0.05) dose and time-dependent scolicidal effects of the extract confirmed by degenerative alterations as observed by electron scan microscopy. Furthermore, primary and secondary metabolites were investigated using GC-MS and qualitative HPLC, revealing the presence of sugars, alcohols, different phenolic acids and light flavonoids. Significant antioxidant capacities were also demonstrated by DPPH radical-scavenging assay. In conclusion, the promising antigenotoxic, antihelminthic and antioxidant potentials of C. vitellina extract encourage further studies to evaluate its possible therapeutic potency. View Full-Text
Keywords: antihelminthic; antioxidant; apoptosis; Candelariella vitellina metabolites; DNA damage; HPLC; GC-MS antihelminthic; antioxidant; apoptosis; Candelariella vitellina metabolites; DNA damage; HPLC; GC-MS
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MDPI and ACS Style

El-Garawani, I.; Emam, M.; Elkhateeb, W.; El-Seedi, H.; Khalifa, S.; Oshiba, S.; Abou-Ghanima, S.; Daba, G. In Vitro Antigenotoxic, Antihelminthic and Antioxidant Potentials Based on the Extracted Metabolites from Lichen, Candelariella vitellina. Pharmaceutics 2020, 12, 477.

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