Targeted drug delivery using nano-sized carrier systems with targeting functions to malignant and inflammatory tissue and tailored controlled drug release inside targeted tissues or cells has been and is still intensively studied. A detailed understanding of the correlation between the pharmacokinetic properties and structure of the nano-sized carrier is crucial for the successful transition of targeted drug delivery nanomedicines into clinical practice. In preclinical research in particular, fluorescence imaging has become one of the most commonly used powerful imaging tools. Increasing numbers of suitable fluorescent dyes that are excitable in the visible to near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths of the spectrum and the non-invasive nature of the method have significantly expanded the applicability of fluorescence imaging. This chapter summarizes non-invasive fluorescence-based imaging methods and discusses their potential advantages and limitations in the field of drug delivery, especially in anticancer therapy. This chapter focuses on fluorescent imaging from the cellular level up to the highly sophisticated three-dimensional imaging modality at a systemic level. Moreover, we describe the possibility for simultaneous treatment and imaging using fluorescence theranostics and the combination of different imaging techniques, e.g., fluorescence imaging with computed tomography.
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