Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Physicochemical, Pharmacokinetic, and Toxicity Evaluation of Methoxy Poly(ethylene glycol)-b-Poly(d,l-Lactide) Polymeric Micelles Encapsulating Alpinumisoflavone Extracted from Unripe Cudrania tricuspidata Fruit
Previous Article in Journal
Glutathione-Loaded Solid Lipid Microparticles as Innovative Delivery System for Oral Antioxidant Therapy
Previous Article in Special Issue
Application of Size and Maturation Functions to Population Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Pediatric Patients
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview

Pharmacokinetics of Intravitreal Anti-VEGF Drugs in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

1
Pharmacy Department, University Clinical Hospital of Santiago de Compostela (SERGAS), 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
2
Pharmacology Group, Health Research Institute of Santiago de Compostela (FIDIS), 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
3
Department of Pharmacology, Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Santiago de Compostela (USC), 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
4
Ophthalmology Department, University Clinical Hospital of Santiago de Compostela (SERGAS), 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
5
Genomic Medicine Group, Galician Public Foundation of Genomic Medicine, Health Research Institute of Santiago de Compostela (FIDIS), 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
6
Department of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Technology and Parasitology, University of Valencia, 46100 Valencia, Spain
7
Interuniversity Research Institute for Molecular Recognition and Technological Development, Polytechnic University of Valencia, 46100 Valencia, Spain
8
Nuclear Medicine Department, University Clinical Hospital of Santiago de Compostela (SERGAS), 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
9
Molecular Imaging Group, Health Research Institute of Santiago de Compostela (FIDIS), 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(8), 365; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11080365
Received: 30 June 2019 / Revised: 20 July 2019 / Accepted: 22 July 2019 / Published: 31 July 2019
  |  
PDF [1002 KB, uploaded 31 July 2019]
  |  

Abstract

Intravitreal administration of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibodies has become the standard treatment for Age-Related Macular Degeneration; however, the knowledge of their pharmacokinetics is limited. A comprehensive review of the preclinical and clinical pharmacokinetic data that were obtained in different studies with intravitreal bevacizumab, ranibizumab, and aflibercept has been conducted. Moreover, the factors that can influence the vitreous pharmacokinetics of these drugs, as well as the methods that were used in the studies for analytical determination, have been exposed. These anti-VEGF drugs present different charge and molecular weights, which play an important role in vitreous distribution and elimination. The pharmacokinetic parameters that were collected differ depending on the species that were involved in the studies and on physiological and pathological conditions, such as vitrectomy and lensectomy. Knowledge of the intravitreal pharmacokinetics of the anti-VEGF drugs that were used in clinical practice is of vital importance. View Full-Text
Keywords: vascular endothelial growth factor/antagonists & inhibitors; ranibizumab; aflibercept; bevacizumab; Age-Related Macular Degeneration; pharmacokinetics; intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor/antagonists & inhibitors; ranibizumab; aflibercept; bevacizumab; Age-Related Macular Degeneration; pharmacokinetics; intravitreal
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

García-Quintanilla, L.; Luaces-Rodríguez, A.; Gil-Martínez, M.; Mondelo-García, C.; Maroñas, O.; Mangas-Sanjuan, V.; González-Barcia, M.; Zarra-Ferro, I.; Aguiar, P.; Otero-Espinar, F.J.; Fernández-Ferreiro, A. Pharmacokinetics of Intravitreal Anti-VEGF Drugs in Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Pharmaceutics 2019, 11, 365.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Pharmaceutics EISSN 1999-4923 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top