Next Article in Journal
Rapid Preparation of Spherical Granules via the Melt Centrifugal Atomization Technique
Next Article in Special Issue
Eradication of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 (HIV-1)-Infected Cells
Previous Article in Journal
Re-Epithelialization Appraisal of Skin Wound in a Porcine Model Using a Salmon-Gelatin Based Biomaterial as Wound Dressing
Previous Article in Special Issue
Design of Poly(lactic-co-glycolic Acid) (PLGA) Nanoparticles for Vaginal Co-Delivery of Griffithsin and Dapivirine and Their Synergistic Effect for HIV Prophylaxis
Article Menu
Issue 5 (May) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview

Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors Nanosystems Designed for Drug Stability and Controlled Delivery

Department of Pharmacy, Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci, 87036 Rende (CS), Italy
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(5), 197;
Received: 20 March 2019 / Revised: 12 April 2019 / Accepted: 22 April 2019 / Published: 27 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Approaches for Delivery of Anti-HIV Drugs)
PDF [1333 KB, uploaded 27 April 2019]


An in-depth analysis of nanotechnology applications for the improvement of solubility, distribution, bioavailability and stability of reverse transcriptase inhibitors is reported. Current clinically used nucleoside and non-nucleoside agents, included in combination therapies, were examined in the present survey, as drugs belonging to these classes are the major component of highly active antiretroviral treatments. The inclusion of such agents into supramolecular vesicular systems, such as liposomes, niosomes and lipid solid NPs, overcomes several drawbacks related to the action of these drugs, including drug instability and unfavorable pharmacokinetics. Overall results reported in the literature show that the performances of these drugs could be significantly improved by inclusion into nanosystems. View Full-Text
Keywords: HIV; antiretrovirals; nanoformulations; drug degradation; drug protection HIV; antiretrovirals; nanoformulations; drug degradation; drug protection

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Grande, F.; Ioele, G.; Occhiuzzi, M.A.; De Luca, M.; Mazzotta, E.; Ragno, G.; Garofalo, A.; Muzzalupo, R. Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors Nanosystems Designed for Drug Stability and Controlled Delivery. Pharmaceutics 2019, 11, 197.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Pharmaceutics EISSN 1999-4923 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top