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Open AccessArticle

Optimization and Prediction of Ibuprofen Release from 3D DLP Printlets Using Artificial Neural Networks

1
Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Cosmetology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Belgrade, 450 Vojvode Stepe Str., 11221 Belgrade, Serbia
2
Department for Applied Mechanics and Automatic Control, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kragujevac, 6, Sestre Janjic Str., 34000 Kragujevac, Serbia
3
Bioengineering Research and Development Center (BioIRC), 6 Prvoslava Stojanovica Str., 34000 Kragujevac, Serbia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(10), 544; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11100544
Received: 20 September 2019 / Revised: 11 October 2019 / Accepted: 12 October 2019 / Published: 18 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Printing of Pharmaceuticals and Drug Delivery Devices)
The aim of this work was to investigate effects of the formulation factors on tablet printability as well as to optimize and predict extended drug release from cross-linked polymeric ibuprofen printlets using an artificial neural network (ANN). Printlets were printed using digital light processing (DLP) technology from formulations containing polyethylene glycol diacrylate, polyethylene glycol, and water in concentrations according to D-optimal mixture design and 0.1% w/w riboflavin and 5% w/w ibuprofen. It was observed that with higher water content longer exposure time was required for successful printing. For understanding the effects of excipients and printing parameters on drug dissolution rate in DLP printlets two different neural networks were developed with using two commercially available softwares. After comparison of experimental and predicted values of in vitro dissolution at the corresponding time points for optimized formulation, the R2 experimental vs. predicted value was 0.9811 (neural network 1) and 0.9960 (neural network 2). According to difference f1 and similarity factor f2 (f1 = 14.30 and f2 = 52.15) neural network 1 with supervised multilayer perceptron, backpropagation algorithm, and linear activation function gave a similar dissolution profile to obtained experimental results, indicating that adequate ANN is able to set out an input–output relationship in DLP printing of pharmaceutics. View Full-Text
Keywords: three-dimensional printing; additive manufacturing; digital light processing technology; printlets; neural networks; optimization; prediction three-dimensional printing; additive manufacturing; digital light processing technology; printlets; neural networks; optimization; prediction
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MDPI and ACS Style

Madzarevic, M.; Medarevic, D.; Vulovic, A.; Sustersic, T.; Djuris, J.; Filipovic, N.; Ibric, S. Optimization and Prediction of Ibuprofen Release from 3D DLP Printlets Using Artificial Neural Networks. Pharmaceutics 2019, 11, 544.

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