Targeted Nanomedicine to Treat Bone Metastasis
J. Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville 32611, FL, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(4), 205; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10040205
Received: 30 August 2018 / Revised: 15 October 2018 / Accepted: 23 October 2018 / Published: 25 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bone Targeted Drug Delivery)
Bone metastases are common complications of solid tumors, particularly those of the prostate, breast, and lungs. Bone metastases can lead to painful and devastating skeletal-related events (SREs), such as pathological fractures and nerve compressions. Despite advances in treatment for cancers in general, options for bone metastases remain inadequate and generally palliative. Anticancer drugs (chemotherapy and radiopharmaceuticals) do not achieve therapeutic concentrations in the bone and are associated with dose-limiting side effects to healthy tissues. Nanomedicines, with their tunable characteristics, have the potential to improve drug targeting to bone metastases while decreasing side effects for their effective treatment. In this review, we present the current state of the art for nanomedicines to treat bone metastases. We also discuss new treatment modalities enhanced by nanomedicine and their effects on SREs and disease progression.