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Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10010019

Minoxidil Skin Delivery from Nanoemulsion Formulations Containing Eucalyptol or Oleic Acid: Enhanced Diffusivity and Follicular Targeting

1
Therapeutics Research Centre, School of Medicine, Translational Research Institute, University of Queensland, Brisbane 4102, Australia
2
Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, School of Pharmacy, Curtin University, Perth 6845, Australia
3
School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide 5000, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 December 2017 / Revised: 14 January 2018 / Accepted: 14 January 2018 / Published: 25 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Penetration Enhancement of Topical Formulations)
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Abstract

In this work, we examined enhanced skin delivery of minoxidil applied in nanoemulsions incorporating skin penetration enhancers. Aliquots of fully characterized oil-in-water nanoemulsions (1 mL), containing minoxidil (2%) and the skin penetration enhancer oleic acid or eucalyptol as oil phases, were applied to full-thickness excised human skin in Franz diffusion cells, while aqueous solutions (1 mL) containing minoxidil were used as controls. Minoxidil in the stratum corneum (SC), hair follicles, deeper skin layers, and flux through the skin over 24 h was determined, as well as minoxidil solubility in the formulations and in the SC. The nanoemulsions significantly enhanced the permeation of minoxidil through skin compared with control solutions. The eucalyptol formulations (NE) promoted minoxidil retention in the SC and deeper skin layers more than did the oleic acid formulations, while the oleic acid formulations (NO) gave the greatest hair follicle penetration. Minoxidil maximum flux enhancement was associated with increases in both minoxidil SC solubility and skin diffusivity in both nanoemulsion systems. The mechanism of enhancement appeared to be driven largely by increased diffusivity, rather than increased partitioning into the stratum corneum, supporting the concept of enhanced fluidity and disruption of stratum corneum lipids. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanoemulsion; stratum corneum; hair follicles; skin maximum flux; skin penetration enhancers; oleic acid; eucalyptol nanoemulsion; stratum corneum; hair follicles; skin maximum flux; skin penetration enhancers; oleic acid; eucalyptol
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Abd, E.; Benson, H.A.E.; Roberts, M.S.; Grice, J.E. Minoxidil Skin Delivery from Nanoemulsion Formulations Containing Eucalyptol or Oleic Acid: Enhanced Diffusivity and Follicular Targeting. Pharmaceutics 2018, 10, 19.

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