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Viruses 2017, 9(12), 386; https://doi.org/10.3390/v9120386

Recognizing the SINEs of Infection: Regulation of Retrotransposon Expression and Modulation of Host Cell Processes

1
Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232-2363, USA
2
College of Pharmacy, Xinxiang Medical University, Xingxiang 453000, China
3
Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Nashville, TN 37232-2363, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 November 2017 / Revised: 12 December 2017 / Accepted: 17 December 2017 / Published: 18 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Long Non-Coding RNAs and Antiviral Immunity)
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Abstract

Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are a family of retrotransposons evolutionarily derived from cellular RNA polymerase III transcripts. Over evolutionary time, SINEs have expanded throughout the human genome and today comprise ~11% of total chromosomal DNA. While generally transcriptionally silent in healthy somatic cells, SINE expression increases during a variety of types of stresses, including DNA virus infection. The relevance of SINE expression to viral infection was largely unexplored, however, recent years have seen great progress towards defining the impact of SINE expression on viral replication and host gene expression. Here we review the origin and diversity of SINE elements and their transcriptional control, with an emphasis on how their expression impacts host cell biology during viral infection. View Full-Text
Keywords: retrotransposons; SINEs; gene expression regulation; DNA virus infection; Murine Gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68); transcriptional interference; innate immunity retrotransposons; SINEs; gene expression regulation; DNA virus infection; Murine Gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68); transcriptional interference; innate immunity
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Dunker, W.; Zhao, Y.; Song, Y.; Karijolich, J. Recognizing the SINEs of Infection: Regulation of Retrotransposon Expression and Modulation of Host Cell Processes. Viruses 2017, 9, 386.

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