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Drug Resistance in Non-B Subtype HIV-1: Impact of HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors

1
Christopher Bond Life Sciences Center, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
2
Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
3
Division of Clinical Microbiology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm 141 86, Sweden
4
Clinical Research Center, Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, National Hospital Organization, Nagoya Medical Center, Nagoya 460-0001, Japan
5
Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
6
Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
7
Department of Oral and Craniofacial Science , School of Dentistry, University of Missouri, Kansas City, MO 64108, USA
8
Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15219, USA
9
Department of Biochemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Viruses 2014, 6(9), 3535-3562; https://doi.org/10.3390/v6093535
Received: 16 July 2014 / Revised: 9 September 2014 / Accepted: 9 September 2014 / Published: 24 September 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue HIV Drug Resistance)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes approximately 2.5 million new infections every year, and nearly 1.6 million patients succumb to HIV each year. Several factors, including cross-species transmission and error-prone replication have resulted in extraordinary genetic diversity of HIV groups. One of these groups, known as group M (main) contains nine subtypes (A-D, F-H and J-K) and causes ~95% of all HIV infections. Most reported data on susceptibility and resistance to anti-HIV therapies are from subtype B HIV infections, which are prevalent in developed countries but account for only ~12% of all global HIV infections, whereas non-B subtype HIV infections that account for ~88% of all HIV infections are prevalent primarily in low and middle-income countries. Although the treatments for subtype B infections are generally effective against non-B subtype infections, there are differences in response to therapies. Here, we review how polymorphisms, transmission efficiency of drug-resistant strains, and differences in genetic barrier for drug resistance can differentially alter the response to reverse transcriptase-targeting therapies in various subtypes. View Full-Text
Keywords: HIV-1 reverse transcriptase; HIV subtypes; nucleoside RT inhibitors; non-nucleoside RT inhibitors; translocation defective RT inhibitors; drug resistance HIV-1 reverse transcriptase; HIV subtypes; nucleoside RT inhibitors; non-nucleoside RT inhibitors; translocation defective RT inhibitors; drug resistance
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Singh, K.; Flores, J.A.; Kirby, K.A.; Neogi, U.; Sonnerborg, A.; Hachiya, A.; Das, K.; Arnold, E.; McArthur, C.; Parniak, M.; Sarafianos, S.G. Drug Resistance in Non-B Subtype HIV-1: Impact of HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors. Viruses 2014, 6, 3535-3562.

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