Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Remembering Professor Walter A. Scott
Previous Article in Journal
A Loop Region in the N-Terminal Domain of Ebola Virus VP40 Is Important in Viral Assembly, Budding, and Egress
Previous Article in Special Issue
Drug Resistance in Non-B Subtype HIV-1: Impact of HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
Open AccessReview

Impact of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 Sequence Diversity on Antiretroviral Therapy Outcomes

1
Department of Pediatrics, Yale University School of Medicine, 333 Cedar St, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
2
Departments of Pediatrics and Pharmacology, Yale University School of Medicine, Child Health Research Center, 464 Congress Ave, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2014, 6(10), 3855-3872; https://doi.org/10.3390/v6103855
Received: 17 July 2014 / Revised: 9 October 2014 / Accepted: 13 October 2014 / Published: 20 October 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue HIV Drug Resistance)
Worldwide circulating HIV-1 genomes show extensive variation represented by different subtypes, polymorphisms and drug-resistant strains. Reports on the impact of sequence variation on antiretroviral therapy (ART) outcomes are mixed. In this review, we summarize relevant published data from both resource-rich and resource-limited countries in the last 10 years on the impact of HIV-1 sequence diversity on treatment outcomes. The prevalence of transmission of drug resistant mutations (DRMs) varies considerably, ranging from 0% to 27% worldwide. Factors such as geographic location, access and availability to ART, duration since inception of treatment programs, quality of care, risk-taking behaviors, mode of transmission, and viral subtype all dictate the prevalence in a particular geographical region. Although HIV-1 subtype may not be a good predictor of treatment outcome, review of emerging evidence supports the fact that HIV-1 genome sequence-resulting from natural polymorphisms or drug-associated mutations-matters when it comes to treatment outcomes. Therefore, continued surveillance of drug resistant variants in both treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced populations is needed to reduce the transmission of DRMs and to optimize the efficacy of the current ART armamentarium. View Full-Text
Keywords: human immunodeficiency virus; subtypes; polymorphisms; mutations; drug resistance; antiretroviral therapy human immunodeficiency virus; subtypes; polymorphisms; mutations; drug resistance; antiretroviral therapy
MDPI and ACS Style

Langs-Barlow, A.; Paintsil, E. Impact of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 Sequence Diversity on Antiretroviral Therapy Outcomes. Viruses 2014, 6, 3855-3872.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Only visits after 24 November 2015 are recorded.
Back to TopTop