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Open AccessReview

Current Perspectives on HIV-1 Antiretroviral Drug Resistance

Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2014, 6(10), 4095-4139;
Received: 28 July 2014 / Revised: 8 October 2014 / Accepted: 20 October 2014 / Published: 24 October 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue HIV Drug Resistance)
PDF [913 KB, uploaded 12 May 2015]


Current advancements in antiretroviral therapy (ART) have turned HIV-1 infection into a chronic and manageable disease. However, treatment is only effective until HIV-1 develops resistance against the administered drugs. The most recent antiretroviral drugs have become superior at delaying the evolution of acquired drug resistance. In this review, the viral fitness and its correlation to HIV-1 mutation rates and drug resistance are discussed while emphasizing the concept of lethal mutagenesis as an alternative therapy. The development of resistance to the different classes of approved drugs and the importance of monitoring antiretroviral drug resistance are also summarized briefly. View Full-Text
Keywords: HIV-1; antiviral therapy; drug resistance; evolution; lethal mutagenesis; resistance monitoring HIV-1; antiviral therapy; drug resistance; evolution; lethal mutagenesis; resistance monitoring

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Iyidogan, P.; Anderson, K.S. Current Perspectives on HIV-1 Antiretroviral Drug Resistance. Viruses 2014, 6, 4095-4139.

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