Next Article in Journal
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Levels in Dobrava/Belgrade Virus Infections
Next Article in Special Issue
Increased Pathogenicity of West Nile Virus (WNV) by Glycosylation of Envelope Protein and Seroprevalence of WNV in Wild Birds in Far Eastern Russia
Previous Article in Journal
Phylogeographic Diversity of Pathogenic and Non-Pathogenic Hantaviruses in Slovenia
Previous Article in Special Issue
West Nile Virus Drug Discovery
Open AccessArticle

West Nile Virus in the United States — A Historical Perspective

Arboviral Diseases Branch, Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, National Center for Zoonotic and Emerging Infectious Diseases, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 3156 Rampart Road, Fort Collins, CO 80521, USA
Viruses 2013, 5(12), 3088-3108;
Received: 29 August 2013 / Revised: 23 October 2013 / Accepted: 29 November 2013 / Published: 10 December 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue West Nile Virus)
Prior to 1999, West Nile virus (WNV) was a bit player in the screenplay of global vector-borne viral diseases. First discovered in the West Nile District of Uganda in 1937, this Culex sp.-transmitted virus was known for causing small human febrile outbreaks in Africa and the Middle East. Prior to 1995, the last major human WNV outbreak was in the 1950s in Israel. The epidemiology and ecology of WNV began to change in the mid-1990s when an epidemic of human encephalitis occurred in Romania. The introduction of WNV into Eastern Europe was readily explained by bird migration between Africa and Europe. The movement of WNV from Africa to Europe could not, however, predict its surprising jump across the Atlantic Ocean to New York City and the surrounding areas of the United States (U.S.). This movement of WNV from the Eastern to Western Hemisphere in 1999, and its subsequent dissemination throughout two continents in less than ten years is widely recognized as one of the most significant events in arbovirology during the last two centuries. This paper documents the early events of the introduction into and the spread of WNV in the Western Hemisphere. View Full-Text
Keywords: West Nile; New York City; U.S. outbreak; zoonotic viruses West Nile; New York City; U.S. outbreak; zoonotic viruses
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Roehrig, J.T. West Nile Virus in the United States — A Historical Perspective. Viruses 2013, 5, 3088-3108.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Only visits after 24 November 2015 are recorded.
Search more from Scilit
Back to TopTop