Next Article in Journal
Molecular Characterization of Major Structural Protein Genes of Avian Coronavirus Infectious Bronchitis Virus Isolates in Southern China
Next Article in Special Issue
West Nile Virus in the United States — A Historical Perspective
Previous Article in Journal
Lessons in AIDS Vaccine Development Learned from Studies of Equine Infectious, Anemia Virus Infection and Immunity
Previous Article in Special Issue
West Nile Virus State of the Art Report of MALWEST Project
Open AccessReview

West Nile Virus Drug Discovery

Novartis Institute for Tropical Diseases, 10 Biopolis Road, Chromos 05-01, Singapore 138670, Singapore
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2013, 5(12), 2977-3006; https://doi.org/10.3390/v5122977
Received: 3 October 2013 / Revised: 25 November 2013 / Accepted: 25 November 2013 / Published: 3 December 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue West Nile Virus)
The outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV) in 1999 in the USA, and its continued spread throughout the Americas, parts of Europe, the Middle East and Africa, underscored the need for WNV antiviral development. Here, we review the current status of WNV drug discovery. A number of approaches have been used to search for inhibitors of WNV, including viral infection-based screening, enzyme-based screening, structure-based virtual screening, structure-based rationale design, and antibody-based therapy. These efforts have yielded inhibitors of viral or cellular factors that are critical for viral replication. For small molecule inhibitors, no promising preclinical candidate has been developed; most of the inhibitors could not even be advanced to the stage of hit-to-lead optimization due to their poor drug-like properties. However, several inhibitors developed for related members of the family Flaviviridae, such as dengue virus and hepatitis C virus, exhibited cross-inhibition of WNV, suggesting the possibility to re-purpose these antivirals for WNV treatment. Most promisingly, therapeutic antibodies have shown excellent efficacy in mouse model; one of such antibodies has been advanced into clinical trial. The knowledge accumulated during the past fifteen years has provided better rationale for the ongoing WNV and other flavivirus antiviral development. View Full-Text
Keywords: drug discovery; antiviral; West Nile virus; flavivirus drug discovery; antiviral; West Nile virus; flavivirus
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Lim, S.P.; Shi, P.-Y. West Nile Virus Drug Discovery. Viruses 2013, 5, 2977-3006.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Only visits after 24 November 2015 are recorded.
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop