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Viruses 2013, 5(10), 2349-2374;

Evolution of Foamy Viruses: The Most Ancient of All Retroviruses

Universität Würzburg, Institut für Virologie und Immunbiologie, Versbacher Str.7, Würzburg 97078, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Dedicated to the memory of Kuan-The Jeang.
Received: 5 August 2013 / Revised: 27 August 2013 / Accepted: 18 September 2013 / Published: 25 September 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Foamy Virus (FV) Research)
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Recent evidence indicates that foamy viruses (FVs) are the oldest retroviruses (RVs) that we know and coevolved with their hosts for several hundred million years. This coevolution may have contributed to the non-pathogenicity of FVs, an important factor in development of foamy viral vectors in gene therapy. However, various questions on the molecular evolution of FVs remain still unanswered. The analysis of the spectrum of animal species infected by exogenous FVs or harboring endogenous FV elements in their genome is pivotal. Furthermore, animal studies might reveal important issues, such as the identification of the FV in vivo target cells, which than require a detailed characterization, to resolve the molecular basis of the accuracy with which FVs copy their genome. The issues of the extent of FV viremia and of the nature of the virion genome (RNA vs. DNA) also need to be experimentally addressed. View Full-Text
Keywords: foamy viruses; retroviruses; hepadnaviruses; evolution; genetic conservation; recombination foamy viruses; retroviruses; hepadnaviruses; evolution; genetic conservation; recombination

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Rethwilm, A.; Bodem, J. Evolution of Foamy Viruses: The Most Ancient of All Retroviruses. Viruses 2013, 5, 2349-2374.

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