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Open AccessReview

Immune Responses to West Nile Virus Infection in the Central Nervous System

by Hyelim Cho 1 and Michael S. Diamond 1,2,3,*
1
Departments of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
2
Departments of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
3
Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2012, 4(12), 3812-3830; https://doi.org/10.3390/v4123812
Received: 20 November 2012 / Revised: 7 December 2012 / Accepted: 10 December 2012 / Published: 17 December 2012
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
West Nile virus (WNV) continues to cause outbreaks of severe neuroinvasive disease in humans and other vertebrate animals in the United States, Europe, and other regions of the world. This review discusses our understanding of the interactions between virus and host that occur in the central nervous system (CNS), the outcome of which can be protection, viral pathogenesis, or immunopathogenesis. We will focus on defining the current state of knowledge of WNV entry, tropism, and host immune response in the CNS, all of which affect the balance between injury and successful clearance. View Full-Text
Keywords: flavivirus; innate immunity; adaptive immunity; pathogenesis; immunopathogenesis; neuron; brain flavivirus; innate immunity; adaptive immunity; pathogenesis; immunopathogenesis; neuron; brain
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Cho, H.; Diamond, M.S. Immune Responses to West Nile Virus Infection in the Central Nervous System. Viruses 2012, 4, 3812-3830.

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