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Converging Strategies in Expression of Human Complex Retroviruses

Department of Oncology and Surgical Sciences, University of Padova, Via Gattamelata 64, I-35128 Padova, Italy
Istituto Oncologico Veneto-IRCCS, I-35128 Padova, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally.
Viruses 2011, 3(8), 1395-1414;
Received: 5 July 2011 / Revised: 28 July 2011 / Accepted: 28 July 2011 / Published: 11 August 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Developments in HTLV Research)


The discovery of human retroviruses in the early 1980s revealed the existence of viral-encoded non-structural genes that were not evident in previously described animal retroviruses. Based on the absence or presence of these additional genes retroviruses were classified as ‘simple’ and ‘complex’, respectively. Expression of most of these extra genes is achieved through the generation of alternatively spliced mRNAs. The present review summarizes the genetic organization and expression strategies of human complex retroviruses and highlights the converging mechanisms controlling their life cycles.
Keywords: HTLV-1; Rex; leukemia HTLV-1; Rex; leukemia

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MDPI and ACS Style

Cavallari, I.; Rende, F.; D'Agostino, D.M.; Ciminale, V. Converging Strategies in Expression of Human Complex Retroviruses. Viruses 2011, 3, 1395-1414.

AMA Style

Cavallari I, Rende F, D'Agostino DM, Ciminale V. Converging Strategies in Expression of Human Complex Retroviruses. Viruses. 2011; 3(8):1395-1414.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cavallari, Ilaria, Francesca Rende, Donna M. D'Agostino, and Vincenzo Ciminale. 2011. "Converging Strategies in Expression of Human Complex Retroviruses" Viruses 3, no. 8: 1395-1414.

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