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Article

The Emergence and Pathogenesis of Recombinant Viruses Associated with NADC34-like Strains and the Predominant Circulating Strains of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in Southern China

College of Animal Science and Technology, Guangxi University, No.100 Daxue Road, Nanning 530005, China
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Małgorzata Pomorska-Mól and Arkadiusz Dors
Viruses 2022, 14(8), 1695; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14081695
Received: 5 July 2022 / Revised: 22 July 2022 / Accepted: 26 July 2022 / Published: 31 July 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging and Re-emerging Pathogens of Livestock)
Since its recent appearance in China, the NADC30-like strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus 2 (PRRSV-2) have caused an expanding epidemic, and this has further expanded the genetic diversity of PRRSV. In this study, three NADC30-like strains—GXFCG20210401, GXQZ20210403 and GXNN20210506—were isolated from pig serum samples obtained in Guangxi, and their genomes were sequenced. A comparative analysis of the whole genomes showed that the three strains were most similar to NADC30 (88.3–88.7%). In particular, the non-structural protein coding regions (nsp1, nsp4-5, nsp7-8 and nsp9) showed the highest similarities to JXA1, and the ORF2a-ORF5 regions showed the highest similarities to NADC34. The three strains had same discontinuous deletions of 111+1+19 amino acids in the nsp2 region, which were similar to the NADC30-like strains. Phylogenetic tree analysis based on the ORF5 gene showed that the three PRRSV isolates were divided into lineage 1.5 along with the representative NADC34-like strains, but they were classified as NADC30-like strains with respect to the whole genome and nsp2 evolutionary trees. Recombinant analysis revealed complex recombination patterns in the genomes of the three strains, which likely originated from multiple recombination events among JXA1-like, NADC30-like and NADC34-like strains. The results from animal experiments showed that the GXQZ20210403 strain was 20% lethal to piglets and caused more severe clinical reactions than GXFCG20210401, and both recombinant strains were similar in terms of pathogenicity to the previously reported NADC34 strains. This study demonstrates that NADC34-like strains of PRRSV have been circulating in the southern provinces of China and have exchanged genomes with several other indigenous strains. In addition, differences in recombination patterns may cause different clinical pathogenicity and indicate the importance of the surveillance and preventive control of recombinant strains. View Full-Text
Keywords: porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus; NADC34-like; genetic evolution; recombination; pathogenicity porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus; NADC34-like; genetic evolution; recombination; pathogenicity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, X.; Zhang, K.; Mo, Q.; Chen, G.; Lv, J.; Huang, J.; Pang, Y.; Wang, H.; Liu, W.; Huang, K.; Min, X.; Ren, T.; Ouyang, K.; Chen, Y.; Huang, W.; Wei, Z. The Emergence and Pathogenesis of Recombinant Viruses Associated with NADC34-like Strains and the Predominant Circulating Strains of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in Southern China. Viruses 2022, 14, 1695. https://doi.org/10.3390/v14081695

AMA Style

Wang X, Zhang K, Mo Q, Chen G, Lv J, Huang J, Pang Y, Wang H, Liu W, Huang K, Min X, Ren T, Ouyang K, Chen Y, Huang W, Wei Z. The Emergence and Pathogenesis of Recombinant Viruses Associated with NADC34-like Strains and the Predominant Circulating Strains of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in Southern China. Viruses. 2022; 14(8):1695. https://doi.org/10.3390/v14081695

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wang, Xindong, Kang Zhang, Qingrong Mo, Guochang Chen, Jing Lv, Jing Huang, Yanli Pang, Hao Wang, Wenbo Liu, Kai Huang, Xiangling Min, Tongwei Ren, Kang Ouyang, Ying Chen, Weijian Huang, and Zuzhang Wei. 2022. "The Emergence and Pathogenesis of Recombinant Viruses Associated with NADC34-like Strains and the Predominant Circulating Strains of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in Southern China" Viruses 14, no. 8: 1695. https://doi.org/10.3390/v14081695

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