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Review

Cardiac Complications of COVID-19 in Low-Risk Patients

1
Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AD, UK
2
King’s College London BHF Centre, The Rayne Institute, St Thomas’ Hospital, London SE1 7EH, UK
3
Department of Metabolism, Digestion and Reproduction, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Juan-Manuel Anaya
Viruses 2022, 14(6), 1322; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14061322
Received: 15 May 2022 / Revised: 13 June 2022 / Accepted: 15 June 2022 / Published: 17 June 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Post-COVID Syndrome)
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in over 6 million deaths and significant morbidity across the globe. Alongside common respiratory symptoms, COVID-19 is associated with a variety of cardiovascular complications in the acute and post-acute phases of infection. The suggested pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie these complications include direct viral infection of the myocardium via the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) protein and a cytokine release syndrome that results in indirect inflammatory damage to the heart. Patients with pre-existing cardiovascular disease and co-morbidities are generally more susceptible to the cardiac manifestations of COVID-19. However, studies have identified a variety of complications in low-risk individuals, including young adults and children. Myocarditis and paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with COVID-19 (PIMS) are among the adverse events reported in the acute phase of infection. Furthermore, patients have reported cardiac symptoms persisting beyond the acute phase in post-COVID syndrome. This review summarises the acute and chronic cardiac consequences of COVID-19 in low-risk patients, explores the pathophysiology behind them, and discusses new predictive factors for poor outcomes. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; post-COVID syndrome; PIMS; SARS-CoV-2; cardiovascular disease COVID-19; post-COVID syndrome; PIMS; SARS-CoV-2; cardiovascular disease
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MDPI and ACS Style

Srinivasan, A.; Wong, F.; Couch, L.S.; Wang, B.X. Cardiac Complications of COVID-19 in Low-Risk Patients. Viruses 2022, 14, 1322. https://doi.org/10.3390/v14061322

AMA Style

Srinivasan A, Wong F, Couch LS, Wang BX. Cardiac Complications of COVID-19 in Low-Risk Patients. Viruses. 2022; 14(6):1322. https://doi.org/10.3390/v14061322

Chicago/Turabian Style

Srinivasan, Akash, Felyx Wong, Liam S. Couch, and Brian X. Wang. 2022. "Cardiac Complications of COVID-19 in Low-Risk Patients" Viruses 14, no. 6: 1322. https://doi.org/10.3390/v14061322

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