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Article

Climate Anomalies and Spillover of Bat-Borne Viral Diseases in the Asia–Pacific Region and the Arabian Peninsula

by 1,2,3,4,* and 3,4,5
1
Wildlife Conservation Society, Viet Nam Country Program, Ha Noi 100000, Vietnam
2
Wildlife Conservation Society, Global Conservation Program, Bronx, NY 10460, USA
3
MIVEGEC, CNRS—IRD—Montpellier Université, 911 Avenue Agropolis, BP 6450, 34394 Montpellier, France
4
Faculty of Veterinary Technology, University of Kasetsart, Bangkok 10900, Thailand
5
Faculty of Tropical Medicine, University of Mahidol, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Peng Zhou
Viruses 2022, 14(5), 1100; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14051100
Received: 5 April 2022 / Revised: 12 May 2022 / Accepted: 16 May 2022 / Published: 20 May 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Zoonoses: Interactions and Factors Driving Virus Transmission)
Climate variability and anomalies are known drivers of the emergence and outbreaks of infectious diseases. In this study, we investigated the potential association between climate factors and anomalies, including El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and land surface temperature anomalies, as well as the emergence and spillover events of bat-borne viral diseases in humans and livestock in the Asia–Pacific region and the Arabian Peninsula. Our findings from time series analyses, logistic regression models, and structural equation modelling revealed that the spillover patterns of the Nipah virus in Bangladesh and the Hendra virus in Australia were differently impacted by climate variability and with different time lags. We also used event coincidence analysis to show that the emergence events of most bat-borne viral diseases in the Asia–Pacific region and the Arabian Peninsula were statistically associated with ENSO climate anomalies. Spillover patterns of the Nipah virus in Bangladesh and the Hendra virus in Australia were also significantly associated with these events, although the pattern and co-influence of other climate factors differed. Our results suggest that climate factors and anomalies may create opportunities for virus spillover from bats to livestock and humans. Ongoing climate change and the future intensification of El Niño events will therefore potentially increase the emergence and spillover of bat-borne viral diseases in the Asia–Pacific region and the Arabian Peninsula. View Full-Text
Keywords: bat-borne virus; spillover; SARS-CoV-2; Nipah virus; Hendra virus; climate change; El Niño Southern Oscillation; event coincidence analysis; temporal analysis; structural equation modelling bat-borne virus; spillover; SARS-CoV-2; Nipah virus; Hendra virus; climate change; El Niño Southern Oscillation; event coincidence analysis; temporal analysis; structural equation modelling
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MDPI and ACS Style

Latinne, A.; Morand, S. Climate Anomalies and Spillover of Bat-Borne Viral Diseases in the Asia–Pacific Region and the Arabian Peninsula. Viruses 2022, 14, 1100. https://doi.org/10.3390/v14051100

AMA Style

Latinne A, Morand S. Climate Anomalies and Spillover of Bat-Borne Viral Diseases in the Asia–Pacific Region and the Arabian Peninsula. Viruses. 2022; 14(5):1100. https://doi.org/10.3390/v14051100

Chicago/Turabian Style

Latinne, Alice, and Serge Morand. 2022. "Climate Anomalies and Spillover of Bat-Borne Viral Diseases in the Asia–Pacific Region and the Arabian Peninsula" Viruses 14, no. 5: 1100. https://doi.org/10.3390/v14051100

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