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Article

High Rate of Mutational Events in SARS-CoV-2 Genomes across Brazilian Geographical Regions, February 2020 to June 2021

1
Laboratório de Bioinformática e Biotecnologia, Campus de Gurupi, Universidade Federal do Tocantins, Gurupi 77402-970, Brazil
2
Laboratório de Virologia Básica e Aplicada, Departamento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte 31270-901, Brazil
3
Laboratório de Saúde Única, Feevale Techpark, Universidade Feevale, Av. Edgar Hoffmeister, 600, Zona Industrial Norte, Campo Bom 93700-000, Brazil
4
Laboratório de Microbiologia Molecular, Universidade Feevale, Rodovia ERS-239, 2755, Prédio Vermelho, Piso 1, sala 103, Vila Nova, Novo Hamburgo 93525-075, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Both authors contributed equally.
Academic Editor: Kenneth Lundstrom
Viruses 2021, 13(9), 1806; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13091806
Received: 1 August 2021 / Revised: 4 September 2021 / Accepted: 7 September 2021 / Published: 10 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Infections in Developing Countries)
Brazil was considered one of the emerging epicenters of the coronavirus pandemic in 2021, experiencing over 3000 daily deaths caused by the virus at the peak of the second wave. In total, the country had more than 20.8 million confirmed cases of COVID-19, including over 582,764 fatalities. A set of emerging variants arose in the country, some of them posing new challenges for COVID-19 control. The goal of this study was to describe mutational events across samples from Brazilian SARS-CoV-2 sequences publicly obtainable on Global Initiative on Sharing Avian Influenza Data-EpiCoV (GISAID-EpiCoV) platform and to generate indexes of new mutations by each genome. A total of 16,953 SARS-CoV-2 genomes were obtained, which were not proportionally representative of the five Brazilian geographical regions. A comparative sequence analysis was conducted to identify common mutations located at 42 positions of the genome (38 were in coding regions, whereas two were in 5′ and two in 3′ UTR). Moreover, 11 were synonymous variants, 27 were missense variants, and more than 44.4% were located in the spike gene. Across the total of single nucleotide variations (SNVs) identified, 32 were found in genomes obtained from all five Brazilian regions. While a high genomic diversity has been reported in Europe given the large number of sequenced genomes, Africa has demonstrated high potential for new variants. In South America, Brazil, and Chile, rates have been similar to those found in South Africa and India, providing enough “space” for new mutations to arise. Genomic surveillance is the central key to identifying the emerging variants of SARS-CoV-2 in Brazil and has shown that the country is one of the “hotspots” in the generation of new variants. View Full-Text
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; variants hotspot; genome analysis; viral evolution; mathematical correlation SARS-CoV-2; variants hotspot; genome analysis; viral evolution; mathematical correlation
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MDPI and ACS Style

de Souza, U.J.B.; dos Santos, R.N.; Campos, F.S.; Lourenço, K.L.; da Fonseca, F.G.; Spilki, F.R.; Corona-ômica.BR/MCTI Network. High Rate of Mutational Events in SARS-CoV-2 Genomes across Brazilian Geographical Regions, February 2020 to June 2021. Viruses 2021, 13, 1806. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13091806

AMA Style

de Souza UJB, dos Santos RN, Campos FS, Lourenço KL, da Fonseca FG, Spilki FR, Corona-ômica.BR/MCTI Network. High Rate of Mutational Events in SARS-CoV-2 Genomes across Brazilian Geographical Regions, February 2020 to June 2021. Viruses. 2021; 13(9):1806. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13091806

Chicago/Turabian Style

de Souza, Ueric José Borges, Raíssa Nunes dos Santos, Fabrício Souza Campos, Karine Lima Lourenço, Flavio Guimarães da Fonseca, Fernando Rosado Spilki, and Corona-ômica.BR/MCTI Network. 2021. "High Rate of Mutational Events in SARS-CoV-2 Genomes across Brazilian Geographical Regions, February 2020 to June 2021" Viruses 13, no. 9: 1806. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13091806

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