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Communication

Combining Multiple Assays Improves Detection and Serotyping of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus. A Practical Example with Field Samples from East Africa

1
Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia e dell’Emilia Romagna (IZSLER), 25124 Brescia, Italy
2
The Boyd Orr Centre for Population and Ecosystem Health, Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health & Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK
3
The Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology, Arusha 23306, Tanzania
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Norbert Nowotny
Viruses 2021, 13(8), 1583; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13081583
Received: 9 July 2021 / Revised: 29 July 2021 / Accepted: 6 August 2021 / Published: 10 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Foot-and-Mouth Disease Control)
Multiple serotypes and topotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) circulate in endemic areas, posing considerable impacts locally. In addition, introductions into new areas are of great concern. Indeed, in recent years, multiple FMDV outbreaks, caused by topotypes that have escaped from their original areas, have been recorded in various parts of the world. In both cases, rapid and accurate diagnosis, including the identification of the serotype and topotype causing the given outbreaks, plays an important role in the implementation of the most effective and appropriate measures to control the spread of the disease. In the present study, we describe the performance of a range of diagnostic and typing tools for FMDV on a panel of vesicular samples collected in northern Tanzania (East Africa, EA) during 2012–2018. Specifically, we tested these samples with a real-time RT-PCR targeting 3D sequence for pan-FMDV detection; an FMDV monoclonal antibody-based antigen (Ag) detection and serotyping ELISA kit; virus isolation (VI) on LFBKαVβ6 cell line; and a panel of four topotype-specific real-time RT-PCRs, specifically tailored for circulating strains in EA. The 3D real-time RT-PCR showed the highest diagnostic sensitivity, but it lacked typing capacity. Ag-ELISA detected and typed FMDV in 71% of sample homogenates, while VI combined with Ag-ELISA for typing showed an efficiency of 82%. The panel of topotype-specific real-time RT-PCRs identified and typed FMDV in 93% of samples. However, the SAT1 real-time RT-PCR had the highest (20%) failure rate. Briefly, topotype-specific real-time RT-PCRs had the highest serotyping capacity for EA FMDVs, although four assays were required, while the Ag-ELISA, which was less sensitive, was the most user-friendly, hence suitable for any laboratory level. In conclusion, when the four compared tests were used in combination, both the diagnostic and serotyping performances approached 100%. View Full-Text
Keywords: FMDV; detection assays; serotyping assays; comparison; field samples FMDV; detection assays; serotyping assays; comparison; field samples
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MDPI and ACS Style

Foglia, E.A.; Lembo, T.; Kazwala, R.; Ekwem, D.; Shirima, G.; Grazioli, S.; Brocchi, E.; Pezzoni, G. Combining Multiple Assays Improves Detection and Serotyping of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus. A Practical Example with Field Samples from East Africa. Viruses 2021, 13, 1583. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13081583

AMA Style

Foglia EA, Lembo T, Kazwala R, Ekwem D, Shirima G, Grazioli S, Brocchi E, Pezzoni G. Combining Multiple Assays Improves Detection and Serotyping of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus. A Practical Example with Field Samples from East Africa. Viruses. 2021; 13(8):1583. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13081583

Chicago/Turabian Style

Foglia, Efrem A., Tiziana Lembo, Rudovick Kazwala, Divine Ekwem, Gabriel Shirima, Santina Grazioli, Emiliana Brocchi, and Giulia Pezzoni. 2021. "Combining Multiple Assays Improves Detection and Serotyping of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus. A Practical Example with Field Samples from East Africa" Viruses 13, no. 8: 1583. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13081583

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