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Communication

Live Bird Markets in Nigeria: A Potential Reservoir for H9N2 Avian Influenza Viruses

1
National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom 930010, Nigeria
2
Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, 35020 Legnaro, Italy
3
Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Abuja 900246, Nigeria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Daniel R Perez
Viruses 2021, 13(8), 1445; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13081445
Received: 25 May 2021 / Revised: 18 July 2021 / Accepted: 20 July 2021 / Published: 24 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drivers of Evolution of Animal RNA Viruses)
Since 2006, multiple outbreaks of avian influenza (AI) have been reported in Nigeria involving different subtypes. Surveillance and molecular epidemiology have revealed the vital role of live bird markets (LBMs) in the dissemination of AI virus to commercial poultry farms. To better understand the ecology and epidemiology of AI in Nigeria, we performed whole-genome sequencing of nineteen H9N2 viruses recovered, from apparently healthy poultry species, during active surveillance conducted in nine LBMs across Nigeria in 2019. Analyses of the HA gene segment of these viruses showed that the H9N2 strains belong to the G1 lineage, which has zoonotic potential, and are clustered with contemporary H9N2 identified in Africa between 2016 and 2020. We observed two distinct clusters of H9N2 viruses in Nigeria, suggesting different introductions into the country. In view of the zoonotic potential of H9N2 and the co-circulation of multiple subtypes of AI virus in Nigeria, continuous monitoring of the LBMs across the country and molecular characterization of AIVs identified is advocated to mitigate economic losses and public health threats. View Full-Text
Keywords: avian influenza H9N2; live bird markets; Nigeria; multiple introductions; poultry avian influenza H9N2; live bird markets; Nigeria; multiple introductions; poultry
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sulaiman, L.; Shittu, I.; Fusaro, A.; Inuwa, B.; Zecchin, B.; Gado, D.; Schivo, A.; Bianco, A.; Laleye, A.; Gobbo, F.; Vakuru, C.; Joannis, T.; Monne, I.; Meseko, C. Live Bird Markets in Nigeria: A Potential Reservoir for H9N2 Avian Influenza Viruses. Viruses 2021, 13, 1445. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13081445

AMA Style

Sulaiman L, Shittu I, Fusaro A, Inuwa B, Zecchin B, Gado D, Schivo A, Bianco A, Laleye A, Gobbo F, Vakuru C, Joannis T, Monne I, Meseko C. Live Bird Markets in Nigeria: A Potential Reservoir for H9N2 Avian Influenza Viruses. Viruses. 2021; 13(8):1445. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13081445

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sulaiman, Lanre, Ismaila Shittu, Alice Fusaro, Bitrus Inuwa, Bianca Zecchin, Dorcas Gado, Alessia Schivo, Alice Bianco, Agnes Laleye, Federica Gobbo, Columba Vakuru, Tony Joannis, Isabella Monne, and Clement Meseko. 2021. "Live Bird Markets in Nigeria: A Potential Reservoir for H9N2 Avian Influenza Viruses" Viruses 13, no. 8: 1445. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13081445

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